, 1999) resulting in the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response (H

, 1999) resulting in the enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). Collectively, these studies indicate that the augmented chemoreflex by chronic IH involves reconfiguration of neurotransmitter profiles in the central nervous system. Does an augmented chemoreflex contribute to pathogenesis of apnea? It was proposed that the increased carotid body sensitivity to hypoxia can lead to a greater

magnitude of hyperventilation during each episode of apnea, thus driving the respiratory controller below the apneic threshold for CO2, leading to greater number of apneas (Prabhakar, 2001). In other words, the heightened hypoxic sensitivity of the carotid body might act as a “positive feedback,” thereby exacerbating the occurrence of apneas. Supporting such LBH589 datasheet a possibility is the finding that chronic IH exposed rats with intact carotid bodies

exhibit greater incidence of spontaneous apneas. This effect was absent in carotid body sectioned rats exposed to chronic IH (Prabhakar, 2013). Since peripheral chemoreceptors regulate hypoglossal motoneuron activity (Bruce et al., 1982), it remains to be established whether the chemoreflex directly or indirectly contributes to the hypoglossal motoneuron dysfunction leading to OSA. Chemo- and mechanosensory afferents and modulatory inputs converge via the NTS on the XII motoneurons where they closely interact with the central respiratory Metformin cost drive acting on the XII motoneurons. As shown in

Fig. 1, an apnea generated at the level of the XII motoneurons could involve a temporary drop-out of central XII activity while respiratory rhythmic activity continues to be generated within the central respiratory network. Neuronal mechanisms that could lead to such a drop Florfenicol out could occur locally within the medulla. Located within the same transverse plane as the XII nucleus is the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC; Fig. 1). The preBötC is a well-defined neuronal network that is essential for breathing. Selective lesion of the preBötC in intact animals abolishes breathing (Gray et al., 2010, Ramirez et al., 1998 and Tan et al., 2008). Moreover, isolated in medullary slice preparations that encompass the preBötC (Fig. 1, preBötC, blue), this neuronal network continues to spontaneously generate inspiratory rhythmic activity (Fig. 1, left panel). Inspiratory activity generated within the preBötC is transmitted to the XII nucleus and leads to the phasic activation of an inspiratory population burst within the hypoglossal nucleus (Fig. 1, left panel). Located within this slice preparation are premotor neurons that transmit the respiratory signal from the preBötC to the XII motoneurons (Chamberlin et al., 2007, Dobbins and Feldman, 1995, Luo et al., 2006, Peever et al., 2002 and Sebe and Berger, 2008).

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