, 2010) It has been reported that saccade-contingent attentional

, 2010). It has been reported that saccade-contingent attentional remapping can modulate neuronal responses in the early retinotopic cortex (Khayat et al., 2004). The process of attentional remapping and its interaction with visual

neurons that encode task-relevant stimulus attributes could be specifically improved by training (Fig. 7). From the discussions above, Ipilimumab clinical trial we propose that spatiotopic visual processing and its specific changes with perceptual training can be mediated by interactions between retinotopic processing and attentional remapping. Both the functionally specialized retinotopic visual cortex and the attentional mechanisms originating from higher-order cortical areas could be modified synergistically over the course of training, producing the rich characteristics of perceptual learning such as specificity for the trained stimulus attribute, the trained retinal location, and the trained spatiotopic stimulus relation. The authors declare no competing conflicts of interest. This work was supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China Grant 2014CB846101, National Natural Science Alectinib price Foundation of China Grants 31200830, 31125014 and 30970983, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities 2012LYB03. We thank Xibin Xu for technical assistance

and Zheng Li for valuable comments on the manuscript. Abbreviations FP fixation point LVF left visual field RVF right visual field SI spatiotopic index “
“Anti-Nogo-A antibody and chondroitinase ABC

(ChABC) enzyme are two promising treatments that promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Treatment with them has encouraged axon regeneration, sprouting and functional recovery in a variety of spinal cord and central nervous system injury models. The two compounds work, in part, through different mechanisms, so it is possible that their effects will be additive. In this (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate study, we used a rat cervical partial SCI model to explore the effectiveness of a combination of anti-Nogo-A, ChABC, and rehabilitation. We found that spontaneous recovery of forelimb functions reflects the extent of the lesion on the ipsilateral side. We applied a combination treatment with acutely applied anti-Nogo-A antibody followed by delayed ChABC treatment starting at 3 weeks after injury, and rehabilitation starting at 4 weeks, to accommodate the requirement that anti-Nogo-A be applied acutely, and that rehabilitation be given after the cessation of anti-Nogo-A treatment. We found that single treatment with either anti-Nogo-A or ChABC, combined with rehabilitation, produced functional recovery of similar magnitude. The combination treatment, however, was more effective.

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