5%) When lopinavir fails with the emergence of the V47A mutation

5%). When lopinavir fails with the emergence of the V47A mutation, treatment with saquinavir may be successful as a result of the hypersusceptibility conferred by

this mutation [66]. More data are, however, needed to evaluate this further. HIV-2 has in vitro sensitivities to lopinavir that are similar to those of HIV-1 [55,67]. There are no clinical studies comparing the efficacies of the different PIs. There is a good body of evidence that boosted lopinavir is clinically effective whereas there is less information on tipranavir and darunavir. Reduced susceptibilities of 20- to 100-fold have been observed in viruses containing the envelope gene of HIV-2, which would suggest that an in vivo response is unlikely [68]; use of fusion inhibitors is therefore not recommended. One in vitro study Smad family demonstrated that the phenotypic susceptibility of 19 wild-type samples of HIV-2 to raltegravir and elvitegravir was similar to that of HIV-1, in spite of the natural polymorphisms observed at secondary HIV-1 sites [69]. These changes may influence the rate at which primary this website mutations occur. The only published data available, in two patients, have shown raltegravir to be highly effective in heavily pretreated HIV-2-infected patients when used in combination with drugs selected based on RT and protease gene

sequencing, which in both cases were abacavir, tenofovir and darunavir [70]. Further data are needed to evaluate this further as a long-term strategy, but integrase inhibitors are included in our current recommendations. One phenotypic in vitro susceptibility study has shown that small molecule inhibitors are effective against wild-type HIV-2 isolates. The HIV-2 strains were slightly less sensitive than the HIV-1 strains to these inhibitors, but the order of efficiency of the compounds tested remained the same [71]. However, there is the distinct possibility that HIV-2 may use co-receptors other than CCR5 or CXCR4 for productive infection in vitro [72]. The

clinical efficacy of the Vildagliptin CCR5 antagonists remains unknown at this stage. There are no randomized controlled trials for the treatment of HIV-2 infection and few patients world-wide have received antiretroviral therapy. The available data suggest that initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-2-infected patients should be based on CD4 cell count and clinical status. As HIV-2 viral load is often undetectable until CD4 count <300 cells/μL, and it is the viral load that drives disease progression in HIV-2 infection, it may be advisable to start treatment earlier than in HIV-1-positive individuals, where a threshold CD4 count of 350–500 cells/μL is used [37]. An HIV-2 plasma viral load above 1000 copies/mL is considered high and is predictive of clinical progression; therefore treatment should be recommended at this level of viral load [73].

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