Cohort studies have suggested that the majority of mothers taking

Cohort studies have suggested that the majority of mothers taking the standard adult dose, even with the capsule formulation, have adequate trough concentrations and achieve an effective virological response [117]. The plasma concentrations of saquinavir achieved with the tablet formulation

when boosted by ritonavir appear to be generally therapeutic and no dose adjustment is routinely required. Interpatient check details variability during pregnancy is, however, high [80],[118]. A study from Italy reported similar third-trimester and postpartum atazanavir concentrations at standard 300 mg dose with 100 mg ritonavir once daily [119]. However, recently third-trimester 24 h AUC concentrations 28% lower than postpartum concentrations were reported from North America. Third trimester concentrations of atazanavir in women taking tenofovir were lower still, being approximately 50% of the postpartum values of women on atazanavir without tenofovir, and 55% of women in the study taking Olaparib mw tenofovir failed to achieve the target atazanavir concentration. The study authors therefore recommended

that it may be necessary to increase the dose of atazanavir to 400 mg (when given with ritonavir 100 mg once daily) during the third trimester [120]. Data from the Europe-based PANNA study also reveals a 33% reduction in third-trimester AUC and Clast atazanavir concentrations compared with postpartum. However, all drug concentrations measured, including with coadministered tenofovir, were above the recommended minimum plasma concentration for wild-type

virus [121]. When prescribed with zidovudine/lamivudine, plasma concentrations achieved with atazanavir 300 mg plus ritonavir 100 mg once daily are only 21% less (by AUC) than historic controls while trough concentrations were reported to be comparable with these controls. Increasing the dose of atazanavir to 400 mg daily during the Quinapyramine third trimester increased trough concentrations by 39% and doubled the risk of hyperbilirubinaemia [122]. A case note review of 155 women in London receiving atazanavir did not report virological failure during pregnancy despite 96% receiving standard dosing of 300 mg with ritonavir 100 mg. TDM was rarely performed and mostly if virological control was considered suboptimal [79]. For darunavir, a study from the USA reported reduced troughs and AUC24 h with once-daily dosing in pregnancy, while dosing twice a day produced levels more comparable with those in non-pregnant individuals [123]. They concluded that twice-daily dosing should be used in pregnancy and higher doses may be required. For women receiving darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg the mean trough level (C24 h) in the third trimester and postpartum was 1.37 (0.15–3.49) μg/mL and 2.59 (<0.09–3.96) μg/mL respectively.

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