Consistent with the Fos data, D-AP5 in the DMS, but not in the DL

Consistent with the Fos data, D-AP5 in the DMS, but not in the DLS, prevented the inhibition of dorsal raphe nucleus

5-HT release normally produced by ES. Furthermore, D-AP5 administered into the DMS before ES, but not into the DLS, increased anxiety 24 h later, leading to levels similar to those produced by IS. These results suggest that, as with appetitive act/outcome contingency learning, the protective effects of behavioral control over a stressor require the DMS. “
“Amphetamine withdrawal in both humans and rats is associated with increased anxiety states, which are thought to contribute to drug relapse. Serotonin in the ventral hippocampus mediates affective behaviors, and reduced serotonin levels in this region are observed in rat models of high anxiety, including during withdrawal from chronic

amphetamine. This goal of this study was to understand learn more the mechanisms by which reduced ventral hippocampus serotonergic neurotransmission occurs during amphetamine withdrawal. Serotonin synthesis (assessed by accumulation of serotonin precursor as a measure of the capacity of in vivo tryptophan hydroxylase activity), expression of serotonergic transporters, Anticancer Compound Library supplier and in vivo serotonergic clearance using in vivo microdialysis were assessed in the ventral hippocampus in adult male Sprague Dawley rats at 24 h withdrawal from chronic amphetamine. Overall, results showed

that diminished extracellular serotonin at 24 h withdrawal from chronic amphetamine was not accompanied by a change in capacity for serotonin synthesis (in vivo tryptophan hydroxylase click here activity), or serotonin transporter expression or function in the ventral hippocampus, but instead was associated with increased expression and function of organic cation transporters (low-affinity, high-capacity serotonin transporters). These findings suggest that 24 h withdrawal from chronic amphetamine reduces the availability of extracellular serotonin in the ventral hippocampus by increasing organic cation transporter-mediated serotonin clearance, which may represent a future pharmacological target for reversing anxiety states during drug withdrawal. “
“Compulsive drug use and a persistent vulnerability to relapse are key features of addiction. Imaging studies have suggested that these features may result from deficits in prefrontal cortical structure and function, and thereby impaired top-down inhibitory control over limbic–striatal mechanisms of drug-seeking behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that selective damage to distinct subregions of the prefrontal cortex, or to the amygdala, after a short history of cocaine taking would: (i) result in compulsive cocaine seeking at a time when it would not usually be displayed; or (ii) facilitate relapse to drug seeking after abstinence.

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