Data for levofloxacin in Table ​Table22 was obtained from a publi

Data for levofloxacin in Table ​Table22 was obtained from a published article [13]. Complete data for each assay, with compounds sorted and color-coded by classification, is in Additional file 1 (tabs A-R, T). The most prescribed medications in the United States in 2007 [29] is also included in Additional file 1 (tab S). Information on the most prescribed medications in the United States from 1970–2006 is provided in Additional file 2. Results Illustration of Molecular Similarity We have used the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical MDL public keys, and a molecular similarity measure (Tanimoto coefficient), to compute the structural similarity between drugs and drug metabolites

to the target compounds used in commercially marketed DOA/Tox immunoassay screens. We have illustrated this using PCP as an example. buy Dinaciclib Figure ​Figure11

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shows the similarity of PCP to 4-phenyl-4-piperidino-cyclohexanol (a PCP metabolite), dextromethorphan (cause of false positives on some PCP screening assays), meperidine (another potential cause of false positives), ketamine, and ibuprofen. PCP has the highest Tanimoto similarity (in descending order) to 4-phenyl-4-piperidino-cyclohexanol Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (0.784), dextromethorphan (0.565), and meperidine (0.538). All three of these compounds are known to cross-react with some marketed PCP assays, but with varying sensitivities as reported in the package inserts (Additional file 1, tab P). Figure 1 Illustration of structural similarity. Using phencyclidine (PCP) as the target compound, 2D similarity was calculated using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto coefficient to five different compounds, three of which (dextromethorphan, meperidine, and the … For example, only 30 ng/mL of 4-phenyl-4-piperidino-cyclohexanol produces cross-reactivity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical equal to 25 ng/mL PCP

in the Abbott Architect PCP assay. Dextromethorphan is reported to cross-react with 4 of 8 commonly marketed PCP assays, with 12,000 ng/mL providing cross-reactivity equal to 25 ng/mL PCP in the Syva EMIT assay but with 500,000 ng/mL needed to do the same for the Biosite Triage assay (Additional file 1, tab P). Meperidine only cross-reacts with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2 of 8 marketed assays (Abbott Architect and Syva EMIT). As shown in Figure ​Figure1,1, ketamine, despite similarity to PCP in terms of mechanism of action and clinical effects [30], is not that closely related to PCP structurally as measured by 2D similarity (0.333) and is also not known to cross-react with marketed PCP assays (Additional too file 1, tab P). PCP has essentially no 2D similarity to ibuprofen (0.100), a widely used drug that does not cross-react at all with PCP assays (Figure ​(Figure11). We will now apply similarity calculation to our analysis and discussion of individual DOA/Tox screening assays. Amphetamine Assays Currently marketed amphetamine screening immunoassays in the United States use d-amphetamine, d-methamphetamine, or both drugs as the antigenic targets (Additional file 1, tab T).

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