Deficiency of ferroportin, the only known cellular protein iron e

Deficiency of ferroportin, the only known cellular protein iron exporter, produces iron overload in the typical form of ferroportin disease. By contrast, genetically enhanced hepcidin production, as observed

in matriptase-2 deficiency, generates iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia. Diagnosis of these iron storage disorders is usually established noninvasively through combined biochemical, imaging and genetic approaches. Moreover, improved knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the variations of iron stores opens the way of novel therapeutic approaches aiming to restore normal iron homeostasis. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about these various genetic entities that have been identified owing to an exemplary interplay between clinicians and basic scientists.”
“The CH5183284 cell line native selleck chemicals llc stem cell niche is a dynamic and complex microenvironment. Recapitulating this niche is a critical focus within

the fields of stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine and requires the development of well-defined, tunable materials. Recent biomaterial design strategies seek to create engineered matrices that interact with cells at the molecular scale and allow on-demand, cell-triggered matrix modifications. Peptide and protein engineering can accomplish these goals through the molecular-level design of bioinductive and bioresponsive materials. This brief review focuses on engineered peptide and protein materials suitable for use as in vitro neural stem cell niche

mimics and in vivo central nervous system Masitinib (AB1010) repair. A key hallmark of these materials is the immense design freedom to specify the exact amino acid sequence leading to multi-functional bulk materials with tunable properties. These advanced materials are engineered using rational design strategies to recapitulate key aspects of the native neural stem cell niche. The resulting materials often combine the advantages of biological matrices with the engineering control of synthetic polymers. Future design strategies are expected to endow these materials with multiple layers of bi-directional feedback between the cell and the matrix, which will lead to more advanced mimics of the highly dynamic neural stem cell niche. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Classical scrapie is a prion disease in sheep and goats. In sheep, susceptibility to disease is genetically influenced by single amino acid substitutions. Genetic breeding programs aimed at enrichment of arginine-171 (171R) prion protein (PrP), the so-called ARR allele, in the sheep population have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the occurrence of classical scrapie in the field. Understanding the molecular basis for this reduced prevalence would serve the assessment of ARR adaptation. The prion formation mechanism and conversion of PrP from the normal form (PrP(C)) to the scrapie-associated form (PrP(Sc)) could play a key role in this process.

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