Environments like wastewater treatment systems (van


Environments like wastewater treatment systems (van

Dongen et al., 2001) and axenic cultures of AOB (Stein buy Dabrafenib & Arp, 1998) can accumulate very high concentrations of nitrite, often in the range of 25–30 mM. Yet, the physiological mechanisms that AOB use to adapt to and resist high nitrite concentrations have not been broadly investigated and are limited to a single AOB strain, Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718, and enrichment cultures (Tan et al., 2008). These studies show that nitrite and free nitrous acid have toxic effects on AOB (Tan et al., 2008) and specifically and irreversibly inactivate ammonia monooxygenase enzymes of N. europaea (Stein & Arp, 1998). In N. europaea, the gene cluster, selleck chemical ncgABC-nirK, which encodes a copper-containing nitrite reductase and three functionally related

proteins (Beaumont et al., 2004a, 2005), is under direct regulation by nitrite via a NsrR repressor protein (Beaumont et al., 2004a). No other genes in N. europaea have been identified as part of a nitrite regulon, although norB, encoding nitric oxide reductase, was shown to be more highly expressed in batch cultures of N. europaea in the presence of supplemental nitrite (Yu & Chandran, 2010). Furthermore, both nirK and norB genes were found to be essential for the anaerobic growth of N. europaea in which nitrite acts as the terminal electron acceptor (Schmidt et al., 2004). The irreversible inactivation of ammonia monooxygenase enzymes by nitrite in N. europaea was found to be under post-translational, but not transcriptional control (Stein & Arp, 1998). The present study investigated the effect of moderately high nitrite concentrations on three genome-sequenced AOB strains: N. europaea ATCC 19718, the long-standing model strain that provided Idoxuridine foundational knowledge of AOB physiology, biochemistry, and genetics (Chain et al., 2003); Nitrosomonas eutropha strain C-91, a close taxonomic relative of N. europaea that is apparently restricted

to environments with very high ammonium loads like wastewater treatment plants (Stein et al., 2007); and Nitrosospira multiformis strain ATCC 25196, a representative of the most common AOB genus found in soils (Norton et al., 2008). The effects of nitrite on the ability of these three AOB to further convert ammonia to nitrite and on the expression of a common gene set were compared to determine whether the strains had similar or different responses to this toxic end product of their metabolism. Uniform responses would indicate that prior studies of nitrite effects on N. europaea could be universalized to other AOB strains. Different responses would indicate that each strain has evolved its own set of genetic and physiological adaptations to high-nitrite environments that must be explored independently.

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