Figure 4 Overexpression huBCL-2 and huMCL-1 in CD8αα+ iIELs from

Figure 4. Overexpression huBCL-2 and huMCL-1 in CD8αα+ iIELs from WT and Il15ra−/− mice Figure S5. Bcl-2 and Bim affect CD8αα+ iIELs survival during in spleen compartment of Il15ra−/− recipients. Figure S6. IL-15-mediated ERK activation in CD8αα+ iIELs is unlikely stimulated by IL-15-induced secreted soluble factor(s) Figure S7. Working model for IL-15-mediated CD8αα+ iIEL survival “
“Diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) using interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses produced by T lymphocytes after stimulation by early secretory antigen target 6 (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein selleck screening library 10 (CFP-10) or purified protein derivate (PPD) were carried out using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in whole blood culture supernatants

from children with suspected TB disease (n = 21), latent TB infection (LTBI; n = 17) and negative controls (NC; n = 21) from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The results were analysed using the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves and the areas under the curve (AUC) generated varied from 0.5 to 1.0 with higher values indicating increased discriminatory ability. Comparisons of AUCs were made using non-parametric assumptions, and the

differences were considered significant if P < 0.05. The ROC curve showed a statistical difference (P = 0.015) between the LTBI and NC groups with an AUC of 0.731, TB disease and NC (AUC = 0.780; P = 0.002) AZD0530 clinical trial and a group with TB (latent infection + disease, n = 38) and NC (AUC = 0.758; P = 0.001) when the antigen used was ESAT-6. No statistical difference was found between the groups when CFP-10 or PPD was used. In conclusion, the ESAT-6 test may be the most appropriate for diagnosis of childhood TB, both LTBI and TB disease, when associated with epidemiological and clinical data, especially in endemic areas such as Brazil. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important infections of humans and a major second global public health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) [1] has annually reported approximately 9.2 million new cases of TB and 1.7 million deaths attributed to this disease. On the other hand, it has been estimated that one-third of

the world population is infected with the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and one of the most remarkable features of this pathogen is its capacity to generate a latent infection [2, 3]. People that have latent TB infection (LTBI) could be a potential reservoir for future infections, especially when the patient is in childhood and has a compromised immune system [4]. However, depending on the epidemiological situation and the intensity of infection locally, the probability of development of clinical disease after infection with M. tuberculosis may vary [5]. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health (2004), 116 000 cases of tuberculosis are reported every year, of which 10% are in children. The country may thus be considered an area where TB is endemic [1].

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