Following incubation with the respective antibodies (20 min, room

Following incubation with the respective antibodies (20 min, room temperature),

cells were analyzed by FlowJo® (Tree Star, Ashland, OR, USA) software. Results are expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (mean of all) in the appropriate gate. Ten thousand cells were counted. T3M4 (5 × 105) cells in 2 mL medium were seeded into six-well culture plates and transfected with two different E-cadherin-specific siRNA (siRNA: Hs_CDH1_12 and Hs_CDG1_13; R428 nmr Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Nontargeting scrambled siRNA (Ambion Applied Biosystems, Darmstadt, Germany) served for mock-transfection of the cells. Cells were transfected according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, using 450 ng of specific siRNA or scrambled siRNA and 12 μL Hiperfect transfection reagent (Qiagen) per subset. The siRNA and the scrambled siRNA were preincubated with serum-free medium and the respective transfection reagent for 15 min, and then added into the experimental subsets. After 24 h, medium was replaced, and the cells were incubated for another 24 h. The outcome of the transfection procedure was tested by cytofluorometry. Proteins from 3 × 106 T3M4 cells with or without treatment of neutrophil elastase (3 μg/mL for 2 h), respectively, after siRNA transfection were isolated using the ProteoExtract™-kit

(Calbiochem/Merck, Darmstadt, Selumetinib datasheet Germany) for the isolation of subcellular compartments (membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, cytoskeleton), according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. P-type ATPase Protein samples were heated for 10 min at 95°C and separated by SDS-PAGE (7%). After blotting to a nitrocellulose transfer membrane (Whatman, Dassel, Germany), a rabbit polyclonal Ab to E-cadherin (Santa Cruz; 1:2000), or mouse mAb to β-catenin (BD Pharmingen, Heidelberg, Germany; 1:2000) diluted in 5% BSA, 1× TBS, and 0.1% sodium azide (Calbiochem/Merck) was added (at 4°C over night). After

washing, membranes were incubated using a goat antirabbit IgG POX, respectively, goat antimouse IgG POX (BD Biosciences, Heidelberg, Germany) as the secondary Ab (room temperature for 30 min). To control for equal loading, β-actin or in case of nuclear extracts p84 was determined using antiactin or anti-p84, respectively (both obtained from Abcam, Cambridge, UK). For detection, Amersham ECL plus Western Blotting Detection System (GE Healthcare, Munich, Germany) was used. Soluble E-cadherin in cell culture supernatants was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit (Quantikine ELISA Kit, R&D Systems, Darmstadt, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All samples were at least measured in duplicate. Invasion assays were performed using a standardized Matrigel invasion chamber (Biocoat Matrigel™ Invasion chamber, 8 μm pore size; BD Biosciences) according to the manufacturer’s instruction.

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