For each species, I recorded the threatening processes affecting

For each species, I recorded the threatening processes affecting them, the conservation actions that were proposed by the species’ experts in the Red List assessments (proposed) and the conservation actions reported to have been undertaken on these species already (implemented). I attempted to use appropriate and common terminology relating to the IUCN assessments and the Red List throughout (Salafsky et al. 2008). I used χ2 tests to assess the difference between the frequency of threats, and the proposed and actual conservation actions for

declining and improving species. I used Pearson’s correlations to assess whether specific threats were correlated with specific proposed or actual conservation actions. Finally, I ran generalised linear models (GLM) with binomial distributions and logit link functions to assess which conservation actions were SAHA HDAC mw most successful in improving the conservation status of mammals. The dependent variable of the GLM was improving (1) and declining (0) mammal species, while I used five predictive variables BI 10773 price following the recommendations of Harrell (2001). I restricted the predictive variables to active conservation strategies: protected area creation, reintroductions, captive breeding,

hunting restrictions and invasive species control because these formed greater than 75% of conservation actions. Models with a ΔAICc of <2 were considered as showing substantial

support, whereas those with ΔAICc > 7 showed no support (Burnham and Anderson 2001). Models with ΔAICc < 2, but with additional parameters to other strongly supported models were not considered the best fit for the data because the penalty for additional parameters with AIC is 2, but model deviance is not reduced an amount sufficient to overcome this (i.e., the uninformative parameter does not explain enough variation to justify its inclusion in the model and so has little ecological effect; Arnold 2010). I used Akaike’s Oxymatrine (1973, 1974) weights to determine the percentage likelihood that a model represents the best fit for the data. I used multimodel averaging (θ) to determine the variable most influencing the change in species’ status (Burnham and Anderson 1998). Results One-hundred and eighty-one species exhibited genuine improvements or declines in status in the 2009 IUCN Red List. Thirty-seven (37) of these improved and 144 declined. Eighty-two (82.6 ± 2.8%) percent of improving species and 91.8 ± 2.1% of declining species occurred in protected areas. There was a significant difference between the threats that affect species that improved in status compared to those that decreased (χ2 = 428.9, df = 9, P < 0.001) with proportionally more improving species threatened by agricultural development and biological resource use (hunting) (Fig. 1).

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