Hadhsc and GDH were immunoprecipitated from isolated mitochondria

Hadhsc and GDH were immunoprecipitated from isolated mitochondria according to Li et al.16 For GDH, the protein A beads were replaced with magnetic Dynabeads M-280 (Life Technologies) (80 μL). Lysine-acetylated proteins were immunoprecipitated according to Hirschey et al.17 in the presence of 10 mM nicotinamide. Islets and exocrine fractions were isolated from the pancreas according to the method described by Zmuda et al.18 Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism software. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney http://www.selleckchem.com/products/icg-001.html U test was selected for comparing two groups. A nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-comparison was selected

for multiple group comparisons when the data did not approximate a normal distribution. Parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a Bonferroni’s post-test was selected for multiple group comparisons when the sampled data approximated a normal distribution. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant and are indicated in the figures as *comparison of −/− selleck chemicals versus +/+ under the same experimental

conditions and §comparison of different conditions within −/− or +/+ groups. Additional methods are provided in the Supporting Information. All antibodies are listed in Supporting Tables 1 and 2. Hint2f/f mice displaying a lox site on each side of the Hint2 gene were bred with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under a ubiquitous promoter (Fig. 1A). Southern blotting revealed that Cre-mediated recombination had excised the Hint2 gene (Fig. 1B). Western blotting confirmed the absence of Hint2 in Hint2−/− livers and pancreas and its presence in Hint2+/+ livers, liver mitochondria, and pancreas (Fig. 1C,E). Immunostaining confirmed

the localization of Hint2 in hepatocytes (Fig. 1D) and its constant expression level throughout the 30-week study (Supporting Fig. 1). Hint2−/− mice appeared healthy at birth and were fertile. Hint2−/− mice weighed 26% more than Hint2+/+ mice at 20 weeks (Table Fenbendazole 1) and accumulated a greater abundance of retroperitoneal fat (data not shown). Liver weights were slightly higher in Hint2−/− mice at 10 and 20 weeks (Table 1). Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were normal. Albumin concentrations were normal but increased slightly at 30 weeks in Hint2−/− mice. Livers of both groups showed an age-associated accumulation of intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles (Fig. 2A), but this was more acute in Hint2−/− livers, particularly in the pericentral regions. Liver triglycerides at 20 weeks were higher in Hint2−/− mice than in Hint2+/+ mice (P < 0.05) (Fig. 2C). Cholesteryl esters were not different (Fig. 2D). To determine whether the absence of Hint2 induced structural changes, hepatocyte mitochondria from mice aged 25 and 50 weeks were examined via electron microscopy.

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