Here, evidence is reviewed which shows that drugs acting on a var

Here, evidence is reviewed which shows that drugs acting on a variety of neurotransmitter

systems can indeed enhance cognition, and to a lesser extent mood and pro-social behavior. Moreover, it seems possible to interfere with the (re)consolidation of traumatic memories. There are, however, a number of caveats: first, selleck chemicals as cognition-enhancing drugs can simultaneously exert both linear and quadratic (U-shaped) effects, doses most effective in facilitating one behavior could at the same time exert null or even detrimental effects on other cognitive domains. Second, individuals with a ‘low memory span’ might benefit from cognition-enhancing drugs, whereas ‘high span subjects’ are ‘overdosed’. And finally, evidence suggests that a number of trade-offs could occur. For example, increases of cognitive stability might come at the cost of a decreased capacity to flexibly alter behavior. A short overview of ethical issues raised by the use of cognition and mood enhancing drugs demonstrates the tremendous variety in views and opinions regarding the subject. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“There is a longstanding association between substance-use disorders (SUDs) and

the psychological construct of impulsivity. In the first section of this review, personality and neurocognitive data pertaining to impulsivity will be summarised in regular users of four classes of substance: stimulants, opiates, alcohol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Impulsivity in these groups

may arise via two alternative Flavopiridol mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive. By one account, impulsivity may occur as a consequence of chronic exposure to substances causing harmful effects on the brain. By the alternative account, impulsivity pre-dates SUM and is associated with the vulnerability to addiction. We will review the evidence that impulsivity is associated with addiction vulnerability by considering three lines of evidence: (i) studies of groups at high-risk for development of SUDs; (ii) studies of pathological gamblers, where the harmful consequences of the addiction on brain structure are minimised, and (iii) genetic association studies linking impulsivity to genetic risk factors for addiction. Within each of these three lines of enquiry, there is accumulating evidence that impulsivity is a pre-existing Sitaxentan vulnerability marker for SUDs. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Functional neuroimaging studies have provided strong support for a critical role of the amygdala in emotional processing. However, several controversies remain in terms of whether different factors-such as sex, valence and stimulus type-have an effect on the magnitude and lateralization of amygdala responses. To address these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of visual emotional perception that reported amygdala activation.

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