High infectious dose and the presence of HCV core gene were stron

High infectious dose and the presence of HCV core gene were strongly involved in ineffective CD8 T-cell responses. We consider that HCV core Tg mouse infected with high

infectious dose of Ad-HCV-NS3 LY2157299 is useful as a chronic infection model in the development of immunotherapy for chronic hepatitis C. HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae, and it infects 170 million people worldwide.[1] Approximately 10–60% of the patients clear HCV spontaneously during the acute phase of infection,[2] while the others develop chronic persistent HCV infection that eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.[3] HCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a major role in viral control during acute infection.[4] Nevertheless, during persistent infection, HCV-specific CTL effector functions are significantly impaired. T-cell exhaustion is one of the remarkable features of chronic HCV infection. In chronically HCV-infected individuals, the frequencies of CTL are relatively low; similarly, the proliferative capacity as well as effector functions

of HCV-specific T cells are impaired, and the production of type I cytokines (i.e. interleukin-2 and interferon [IFN]-γ) is dramatically suppressed.[5-8] It appears that the major factors which Selleckchem Ceritinib determine duration and magnitude of an antiviral immune response are antigen (Ag) localization, dose and kinetics.[9]

For example, high doses of widely disseminating strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) exhaust antiviral CTL leading to establishment of a persistent infection.[10] Physical deletion of anti-LCMV CTL is most likely preceded by their functional impairment with the inability to produce effector cytokines.[11, 12] Moreover, Wherry et al. showed that not only the persistence of a viral Ag, but also the initial Ag level is an important factor determining MCE公司 the quality of the antiviral memory response.[13] Hepatitis C virus core protein has been reported to suppress T-cell response. HCV core-mediated inhibition of T-cell response can occur via either modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by antigen-presenting cells (APC; i.e. monocyte and dendritic cells)[14] or direct effect on T cells.[15-17] Because the liver is the major site of HCV infection, it is crucial to understand the regulation of host immunity by HCV core in the liver compartment and the impact of HCV core-induced immune dysregulation in facilitating HCV persistence. Hepatitis C virus does not infect small laboratory animals. The lack of a small animal model has hampered studies attempting to elucidate the mechanism of HCV-mediated suppression of antiviral CD8 T-cell activity and caused difficulty in the development of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic HCV vaccine.

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  1. S1) Cells recorded from wires located outside the core and shell
  2. This finding provides new insights into the genetic regulation of
  3. Kaplan-Meier curves for high versus low expression of gene-level
  4. 7 The same group also performed a second GWAS, with an increased
  5. 50 Although some previous high-dose prednisone studies showed imp
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