However, the lack of improvement in clinical outcomes needs furth

However, the lack of improvement in clinical outcomes needs further investigation and widespread implementation of MI training for pharmacists

for this purpose is not currently justified. An MI-based EPS for methadone patients did not significantly reduce illicit heroin use. It may be that, while the level of interaction was increased to a level that improved treatment satisfaction, it was not sufficient or sufficiently directive to influence drug-use outcomes. There was evidence of increased pharmacist–patient communication in the intervention group that was considered helpful by patients. More research is recommended to explore whether pharmacists and specialist services could work together in a more selleck chemical structured way to improve clinical outcomes (drug related and general health). Furthermore, qualitative research into why physical health appeared adversely affected is recommended. The Author(s) AUY-922 declare(s) that they have no conflicts

of interest to disclose. Thanks to the Chief Scientist Office, Edinburgh, Scotland, for funding the study. Ethical approval was obtained from the Multi-centre Research Ethics Committee (MREC) for Scotland in November 2007 and from all the relevant local Research and Development Offices for each study site shortly after via the Multicentre Research and Development (MRAD) consortium, Scotland. The MREC reference number is: 07/MRE00/110; the MRAD reference number is: MRAD08/PH05. The study conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised Tokyo, 2004). The full study protocol is available on request from the corresponding author. MJ was the research fellow responsible for the day to day running of the check details project. She worked with AJL and DM on the analysis of the results and produced the first draft of the paper. She contributed to the many drafts and re-writing of the paper and final

submission for publication. CM was the principal investigator of the study and contributed to the paper through reviewing and commenting on drafts and writing parts of the discussion. CM was responsible for the overall study design. CB was a grant holder on this study and contributed to the conception and design of the study. She also commented on the drafts of the paper. AJL was a grant holder on the study and contributed to the conception and design of the study and to the analysis and interpretation of the data. She also contributed to revisions of the paper and has approved the final version prior to submission. DM analysed and interpreted the data, drafted the statistical methods and results, and approved the final version of the article. AJ was a grant holder on the study and delivered four short sessions on MI to each cohort of pharmacists selected for the study.

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