In studies on the behavioral manifestation of learning disabiliti

In studies on the behavioral manifestation of learning disabilities, however, comorbidity is often neglected. In the present study, we systematically examined the reading behavior of German-speaking children with dyslexia, of children with attentional problems, of children with comorbid NU7026 ic50 dyslexia and attentional problems and of normally developing children by measuring their reading accuracy, naming latencies and eye movement patterns during single word reading. We manipulated word difficulty by contrasting (1) short vs. long words with (2) either low or high sublexical complexity

(indexed by consonant cluster density). Children with dyslexia only (DYS) showed the expected reading fluency impairment of poor readers in regular orthographies but no accuracy problem. In contrast, comorbid children (DYS+AD) had significantly higher error rates than all other groups, but less of a problem with reading fluency than DYS. Concurrently recorded eye movement measures revealed that DYS made the highest number of

fixations, but exhibited shorter mean single fixations than DYS+AD. Word length had the strongest effect on dyslexic children, whereas consonant cluster density affected all groups equally. Theoretical implications of these behavioral and eye movement patterns are discussed selleck and the necessity for controlling for comorbid attentional deficits in children with reading deficits is highlighted. next (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder in which hypersociability is a characteristic feature. Given that the amygdala has been identified as an integral component of the neural system underlying sociability, researchers have suggested that the abnormal amygdala volumes found in individuals with WS may play a role in their hypersociability. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between amygdala volume and hypersociability, as measured by approachability ratings, in 22 individuals with WS and 22 normal controls matched on chronological age, sex, and handedness. We confirmed previous

findings of increased amygdala volumes and higher approachability ratings of both ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ faces in individuals with WS. A positive relationship between right amygdala volume and approachability ratings was found in individuals with WS, particularly ratings of ‘negative’ faces. The results unexpectedly revealed that individuals with WS report using features other than the eyes and mouth to determine approachability, particularly when they are younger. These findings support the theory that amygdala dysfunction in WS is related to their hypersociability. Furthermore, we propose that individuals with WS use atypical cognitive strategies compared to controls to determine approachability. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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