In the late referral group, 15 patients required commencement of dialysis via a temporary
central venous access, pulmonary oedema was present in 13 patients and malignant hypertension was present in three patients. The later referral group was characterized by more severe biochemical and haematological markers of uraemia such as higher serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations and lower creatinine clearance, serum bicarbonate, calcium and haemoglobin. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also significantly higher in the late referral group. The duration of hospitalization (33.2 ± 13.1 days vs 5.7 ± 1.1 days, P < 0.001) and the cost of hospitalization were significantly higher in the late referral group. Ellis et al. in 1998 reported a retrospective CP673451 review of all patients who developed ESKD and who were accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) at Kings College, London over a 2-year period from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 1997.33 Sixty-four patients were regarded as late referral (<12 weeks prior to commencing RRT) and 134 patients were classified as early referral (>12 weeks prior to starting RRT). In the late referral group, there was objective evidence of renal disease for at least
selleck 8 weeks in 50% of patients and 22% of patients had evidence of renal disease for at least 1 year prior to the time of referral. Suboptimal management of CKD prior to referral to the nephrology service was common. Only 33% of diabetic patients were treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and 49% of patients with CKD and hypertension had inadequate control of blood pressure at the time of referral to the nephrology service. The length of hospitalization was significantly longer in the late referral group (25 vs 9.7 days, P < 0.001). However, there was no difference in mortality between the early and late referral groups (12-month survival: Miconazole 60.5% vs 72.5%). Khan et al. in 1995 reported factors associated with early mortality on dialysis in a retrospective,
case–control study of patients being dialysed at a single centre in Aberdeen (UK) between 1 January 1971 and 6 January 1993.34 Forty-two patients who died within 90 days of the commencement of haemodialysis were compared with age- and sex-matched patients who survived longer than 90 days. In the early mortality group, there were a higher proportion of patients who required urgent dialysis (79% vs 21%, P < 0.05) and there was a shorter period of predialysis management (1.1 vs 10.6 months, P < 0.0001). A greater prevalence of arteriolosclerosis, comorbid illness and smoking and a lower mean serum albumin (31.4 vs 37.1 g/L, P < 0.006) were also identified in the early mortality group. A similar experience was reported by Innes et al. in a retrospective analysis of 44 patients who died within 1 year of starting dialysis compared to 44 age- and sex-matched patients who survived more than 1 year.