“Previous genetic analyses have

demonstrated that

“Previous genetic analyses have

demonstrated that two divergent lineages of Pipistrellus kuhlii are spread over Europe and North Africa, and it has been proposed that Pipistrellus maderensis, a taxon endemic to the Canary Archipelago and Madeira, was its sister species. In this study, we used mitochondrial DNA sequences to investigate the level of endemism achieved by Corsican lineages with regard to their continental selleckchem counterparts and to propose hypotheses about the geographical origin of Corsican bats. Our results suggest that Corsican Kuhl’s pipistrelles are not endemic. Such a lack of genetic endemism in Corsica can result from current gene flow with French and Italian populations and/or recent colonization of this island. Additionally, our results demonstrate Y-27632 cost that Corsica was colonized independently from Europe by two divergent lineages (genetic distance=5.8%) widespread in the western Palaearctic and clearly suggest that North Africa probably does not play any significant role in the colonization of Corsica by the Kuhl’s Pipistrelle. Additional morphometric, acoustic and ecological studies are needed to soundly ascertain the respective taxonomic status of these two divergent lineages and the level of distinctiveness achieved by Corsican bats. “
“Sexual dimorphism is characteristic

of monogonont rotifers, but at present, most investigations on the evolution of morphology within Monogononta have focused exclusively on females, with only minor taxonomic comments on the male structure. Here, we make the first detailed comparison of female and male morphology by examining their muscular organization, with the aim of understanding how factors such as phylogeny, habitat and the structural 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl rigidity of the body wall determine the muscle arrangement patterns.

We compare the musculature of both females and males in Brachionus manjavacas and Epiphanes senta. Generally, rotifer males have a similar ecology that may be different from the conspecific females. Thus, we analysed muscles of conspecific females and males with different ecology, namely habitat and/or different stiffness of the lorica. Females of B. manjavacas are loricate and planktic, while E. senta females are illoricate, can be found in the plankton, but have a lifestyle much related to a substrate. Males are in both species free swimmers and without a stiff lorica. Visceral muscles are present in the digestive (only in females) and reproductive apparatus (only in males). Somatic musculature comprises inner longitudinal and outer circular muscles. Major differences are discernible among circular muscle states: B. manjavacas has dorsoventral bands, while E. senta possesses muscles that are ventrally incomplete. The same condition occurs in both sexes.

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