Primarily because of the lack of large-scale clinical evidence, t

Primarily because of the lack of large-scale clinical evidence, the NICE recommendations were formulated in the absence of any consideration of the possible benefits of certain classes of antihypertensive agents in improving Akt inhibitor review cognition. In the light of the NICE statement above about the absolute difference between ACEIs/AIIAs and CCBs being small, the conclusions of the current review may warrant reconsideration of the

guidelines with reference to: the use of ACEI in the elderly; the recommended preference for brain-penetrability of ACEIs; and the preference of AIIAs over ACEIs. A reconsideration of the use of ACEIs or AIIAs in black patients may also be warranted, albeit not as monotherapy for hypertension. Whether there are ethnic differences in any cognitive responses to ACEIs or AIIAs has yet to be explored, but there is a strong possibility that the cardiovascular and psychological effects are brought about by different mechanisms; hence such ethnic differences may not be the case. Note that the same is true for the use of ACEIs

in heart failure where the NICE guidelines make no reference to differential use in different ethnic groups. There has recently been a call for more clinical trials in the area of hypertension control and dementia in IWR-1 price the very elderly,[64] and there may also be a need to investigate ethnic differences in any observed drug effects. To return to the title of this review, and its relevance to prescribing practice and patient counselling, it is still unclear which comes first: non-adherence to antihypertensive medication or impaired cognition. There is, however, evidence that antihypertensive medicines, in particular brain-penetrating ACEIs and AIIAs, may reduce the cognitive decline associated with hypertension, and may even improve cognition independent of any cardiovascular effect. Non-adherence to the medication might therefore be predicted to have an adverse effect on cognition.

On the other hand, good adherence to the antihypertensive medication is likely to improve control of blood pressure but also improve cognition, having the ‘positive feedback’ effect of further maintaining the good adherence to medication. Regarding patient Forskolin in vitro counselling, therefore, not only should patients be told of the benefits of adherence to antihypertensive therapy in terms of the decreased risk of stroke, myocardial infarct and heart failure, but they should also be informed of the possible beneficial effects in terms of decreased prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The Author declares that he has no conflicts of interest to disclose. This review received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. “
“Objectives The aim was to investigate patients’ perceptions and understanding on the appropriate use of non-prescription ibuprofen.

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