Secondly, multivariable models estimated the independent associat

Secondly, multivariable models estimated the independent association of all variables (non-music-activity exposure and activity-related soreness) with the primary and secondary outcomes accounting for age and gender. Thirdly,

a final multivariable model included all variables significantly associated with the primary and secondary outcomes adjusted for age and gender, to examine the independent contribution of those factors to playing symptoms and playing disorders. From the 859 students who were given the survey, 731 (85%) questionnaires were fully completed, including 559/659 (85%) at secondary schools and 172/200 (86%) at primary schools, as presented in Figure 1. Of the 731 respondents, 489 (67%) reported a lifetime prevalence of playing symptoms, 412 (56%) reported Selleck Fulvestrant symptoms within the past month, and 219 (30%)

reported a playing disorder, that is, they R428 in vitro were unable to play their instrument as usual due to the symptoms. The most-commonly reported locations for problems were the right (24%) and left (23%) hands, followed by the neck (16%) and the right shoulder (14%). Females (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4) and older children (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.3) were more likely to report problems. Descriptive statistics for the non-music-activity frequency, duration and soreness are listed in Table 1. Frequencies of respondents in the exposure variable, which was derived from the reported frequency and duration according to the matrix in Table for 2, are presented in Table 3. Respondents commonly reported moderate exposure to watching television (61%), vigorous physical activity (57%), writing (51%) and computer use (45%), as presented in Table 3.

Only half of the respondents reported playing electronic games (52%) and participating in intensive hand activities (54%), with respondents commonly reporting low exposure to electronic games (23%) and moderate exposure to intensive hand activities (22%), as presented in Table 3. Significantly more males reported high-exposure levels for watching television (χ2 = 10.5, p = 0.03), computer use (χ2 = 11.9, p = 0.018) and electronic game use (χ2 = 94.7, p < 0.001) than females, but there was no evidence of gender differences for exposure to writing, intensive hand activities and vigorous physical activities. For watching television (F = 2.4, p = 0.05), computer use (F = 10.7, p < 0.001), electronic game use (F = 3.2, p = 0.014) and writing (F = 13.3, p < 0.001), there was a significant association with age – with younger respondents reporting higher exposure levels than older respondents – but there was no association between age and exposure to intensive hand activities and vigorous physical activity.

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