th a microplate reader, Histology of sea bream skin and scales To

th a microplate reader, Histology of sea bream skin and scales To characterize sea bream skin and scale morphology, samples fixed in 4% PFA were decalcified overnight in 0. 5 M EDTA, pH 8, dehydrated through a graded etha nol series, saturated in xylene and impregnated and embedded in paraffin wax. Serial sec tions of skin were mounted on 3 aminopropyl triethoxysilane coated glass slides. The sections were dried overnight at 37 C, cooled to room temperature and stored or stained. To distinguish between collagen rich and or mineralized and non mineralized tissue, sections were stained with Massons trichrome. Skin sections were rapidly dehydrated through a graded series of alcohols, cleared in xylene and mounted in DPX mountant.

Stained sections were analyzed using a microscope coupled to a digital camera and linked to a compu ter for digital image analysis. Sea bream microarray A 4 �� 44 k oligo array developed and validated for the gilthead sea bream by Ferraresso et al. was Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries used in this study. The array contained 39,379 sea bream oligo nucleotide probes covering 19,715 unique transcripts and of these, 19,650 were represented by two non over lapping probes and 65 were present as a single probe. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Owing to the expansion of teleost sequences in the pub lic databases since the publication of Ferraresso et al. a re annotation of probes was carried out with Blastx similarity searches against the Uniprot Swissprot and Uniprot Trembl databases. Annotation was assigned for probes with an expected score in excess of 1e 10.

Total RNA was extracted from five individual fish using an RNeasy Mini kit according to the manufacturers instructions. RNA quality and integrity were checked using an Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Agilent 2100 Bioanalyser and only samples with an RNA integrity index number 7. 5 were processed for use in microarray analy sis. Samples from each treatment group were labelled with Cy3 dCTP and hybridizations were performed using the Agilent One Colour Microarray Based Gene Expression Analysis protocol with the modifications Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries described by Ferraresso et al. The arrays were scanned on an Agilent G2565BA DNA microarray scanner, at a resolution of 5 um, and at two Batimastat different sensitivity levels. The XDR Hi and XDR Lo images generated per array were analysed together and the data extracted. Background subtraction was performed using the standard procedure in the Agilent Feature Extraction Software 9.

5. 1. Spike In Viral RNAs were used to control sellekchem array hybridization intensities and ensure normalization gave a uniform signal across all microarray slides. The R limma package was used for microarray analysis. A factorial design of the treatments were compared by fitting a linear model with differentially expressed clones selected by a Benjamini and Hochberg globally adjusted p value of 0. 05 and a minimum two fold change. The tran scripts represented by two non overlapping probes were only selected when both probes were differen tially expressed. The data discussed in this publicatio

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