The antioxidant effect of bilirubin is one of the likely pathways

The antioxidant effect of bilirubin is one of the likely pathways for its beneficial effects on human health. However, additional protective mechanisms may exist and need to be looked for. In conclusion, the demonstration of reduced overall mortality in persons with GS in the study by Horsfall et al. should be of interest to a variety of medical specialists, even though the data are not necessarily conclusive. One hopes that large, prospective, long-term follow-up cohort studies will soon follow to confirm or refute its findings. If these studies confirm the protective effect of GS on the overall risk of death, it would

be important to determine the mechanisms underlying this association. Such information may open a vista of newer Proteases inhibitor interventions to improve human health and survival. “
“Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) is a multicomponent enzyme that mediates electron RXDX-106 transfer from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate to molecular oxygen, which leads to the production of superoxide. NOX2/gp91phox is a catalytic subunit of NOX expressed in phagocytic cells. Several homologues

of NOX2, including NOX1, have been identified in nonphagocytic cells. We investigated the contributory role of NOX1 and NOX2 in hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in wild-type (WT) mice, NOX1 knockout (NOX1KO) mice, and NOX2 knockout (NOX2KO) mice by way of either carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection or bile medchemexpress duct ligation (BDL). The functional contribution of NOX1 and NOX2 in endogenous liver cells, including hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and bone marrow (BM)-derived cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs), to hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and hepatic fibrosis was assessed in vitro and in vivo using

NOX1 or NOX2 BM chimeric mice. Hepatic NOX1 and NOX2 messenger RNA expression was increased in the two experimental mouse models of hepatic fibrosis. Whereas NOX1 was expressed in HSCs but not in KCs, NOX2 was expressed in both HSCs and KCs. Hepatic fibrosis and ROS generation were attenuated in both NOX1KO and NOX2KO mice after CCl4 or BDL. Liver fibrosis in chimeric mice indicated that NOX1 mediates the profibrogenic effects in endogenous liver cells, whereas NOX2 mediates the profibrogenic effects in both endogenous liver cells and BM-derived cells. Multiple NOX1 and NOX2 components were up-regulated in activated HSCs. Both NOX1- and NOX2-deficient HSCs had decreased ROS generation and failed to up-regulate collagen α1(I) and transforming growth factor β in response to angiotensin II. Conclusion: Both NOX1 and NOX2 have an important role in hepatic fibrosis in endogenous liver cells, including HSCs, whereas NOX2 has a lesser role in BM-derived cells.

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