The Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation Syst

The Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS) and Appetitive

Motivation Scale (AMS) questionnaires were administered to 286 participants: 91 healthy controls (HCs). 121 participants with a current ED, either AN (restrictive and CBL0137 solubility dmso binge purge subtypes), or BN and 74 participants recovered from an ED. Individuals with EDs had higher levels of sensitivity to punishment and lower levels of reward reactivity than controls. Individuals in recovery from an ED scored the same as those in the acute group, with the exception of BAS fun seeking, for which they scored significantly higher than those with restricting AN. Discriminant analysis revealed that HCs were maximally separated from those in the acute and recovered ED groups along a dimension reflecting high punishment sensitivity and low reward sensitivity. Classification analysis demonstrated that ED and HC group membership

was predicted from reward and punishment sensitivity measures; however recovered PKC412 solubility dmso participants tended to be misclassified as ED. This study suggests high punishment sensitivity and low reward reactivity/sensitivity might form a personality cluster associated with the risk of developing an ED. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Objective: Although dextran has been theorized to diminish the risk of stroke associated with carotid endarterectomy (CEA), variation exists in its use. We evaluated outcomes of dextran use in patients undergoing CEA to clarify its utility.

Methods: We studied all primary CEAs performed by 89 surgeons within the Vascular Study Group of New England database (2003-2010). Patients during were stratified by intraoperative dextran use. Outcomes included perioperative death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and congestive heart failure (CHF). Group and propensity score matching was performed for risk-adjusted comparisons, and multivariable logistic

and gamma regressions were used to examine associations between dextran use and outcomes.

Results: There were 6641 CEAs performed, with dextran used in 334 procedures (5%). Dextran-treated and untreated patients were similar in age (70 years) and symptomatic status (25%). Clinical differences between the cohorts were eliminated by statistical adjustment. In crude, group-matched, and propensity-matched analyses, the stroke/death rate was similar for the two cohorts (1.2%). Dextran-treated patients were more likely to suffer postoperative MI (crude: 2.4% vs 1.0%; P = .03; group-matched: 2.4% vs 0.6%; P = .01; propensity-matched: 2.4% vs 0.5%; P = .003) and CHF (2.1% vs 0.6%; P = .01; 2.1% vs 0.5%; P = .01; 2.1% vs 0.2%; P < .001). In multivariable analysis of the crude sample, dextran was associated with a higher risk of postoperative MI (odds ratio, 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-7.64) and CHF (odds ratio, 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-13.89).

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