The Shh gradient rapidly stimulated the repulsion of axons with t

The Shh gradient rapidly stimulated the repulsion of axons with turning commencing within 1 hr of application of the gradient, indicating that the effect of Shh is direct. Quantification of the angle turned (Figure 3D) indicated that axons in a control gradient have no net turning (angle turned of −0.82° ± 4.3°, mean ± SEM; Figures 3E and 3F). In a Shh gradient, however, axons from commissural neurons at 3–4 DIV had a significant bias toward negative angles turned (−14.8° ± 5.0°; p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA; Figures 3E and 3F), indicating repulsion by Shh. The degree of repulsion by Shh was even Crizotinib in vitro more dramatic when those axons oriented toward increasing Shh concentrations, i.e.,

with initial angles between 0° and 90°, were considered. In this case, the mean angle turned was −23.9°. Shh appeared to only affect turning, not growth, of these axons because the Shh gradient did not significantly change the growth rate of the axons compared to the control (p = 0.8287) (Figure 3G). Furthermore, the net axon growth in a Shh gradient showed no correlation with the angle turned (Figure 3H). As previously shown (Yam et al., 2009), commissural axons at 2 DIV were attracted up a Shh gradient, with a mean angle

turned of 11.1° ± 4.6° (Figures 3E and 3F). This contrasts sharply with the repulsion by Shh that we observed at 3–4 DIV and suggests that the response of commissural neurons in vitro to Shh gradients changes over time. The length of the axon had no bearing on the degree of repulsion by Shh (Figure 3I), suggesting that the switch from attraction to ABT-737 repulsion by Shh is independent of axon length. This change in response to Shh over time is reminiscent of the change in response of commissural neurons in vivo to Shh gradients during development, with younger precrossing axons attracted to Shh along the DV axis and older postcrossing axons repelled by Shh along the AP axis. That isolated commissural neurons in culture maintain the ability

to switch their response to Shh gradients suggests that the switch is cell intrinsic and temporally regulated. Unlike the switch in commissural axon response to Shh, silencing of the Netrin-1 response at the floorplate is not cell intrinsic and depends on physical Levetiracetam encounter with the floorplate (Shirasaki et al., 1998). Indeed, we found that commissural neurons do not change their response to Netrin-1 over time in vitro. Commissural axons were attracted to Netrin-1 both at 2 DIV (mean angle turned of 17.4° ± 4.0°) and 3–4 DIV (mean angle turned of 12.8° ± 3.6°) (Figure 3J). Thus, the cell-intrinsic switch in the polarity of the response to guidance cues regulates the response to Shh, but not to Netrin-1. We next looked for endogenous proteins that are expressed in a time-dependent manner and that could mediate the switch in Shh response.

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