The T3S injectisome has a high amount of paralogy

to the

The T3S injectisome has a high amount of paralogy

to the flagellar secretion system in structure and in function. In the T3SS, CdsN is the ATPase that aids in shuttling effectors through the needle, and is paralogous to FliI [16]. CdsL is orthologous to YscL and paralogous to FliH. In Yersinia, YscL is the ATPase tethering protein and functions to down-regulate enzymatic activity of YscN [17]. CopN, orthologous to YopN, is believed to function as a regulator of the system which plugs the injectisome pore prior to activation of T3S and is a known effector protein [18]. CdsU, orthologous to YscU, plays an important role is substrate specificity and substrate switching from structural components to effector proteins upon host cell contact [19]. Recently, several reports

have emerged characterizing protein interactions within the C. pneumoniae T3SS, describing novel protein complexes that form at the inner membrane. Johnson #AMN-107 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# et al have shown that CdsD, a unique protein orthologous to YscD that contains two fork-head associated domains, interacts with the predicted C. pneumoniae ATPase tethering C646 cell line protein, CdsL, and CdsQ, a cytosolic component of the inner membrane that presumably forms the bulk of the T3S C-ring [20]. Stone et al extended these findings to show that CdsN, the ATPase, is also involved in this complex as well as interacting with the proposed plug protein, CopN [16]. Flagellar motility is an ancient, conserved mechanism that may have evolved from the same ancestor as T3S [21]. This motility facilitates bacterial migration towards less hostile environments. In non-motile bacteria, however, the presence of flagella would be evolutionarily redundant and energetically expensive, unless the proteins played a role in another mechanism involving bacterial replication or survival. Although C. pneumoniae is thought to be a non-motile bacteria, it has been shown

to contain at least three orthologs oxyclozanide of flagellar genes, namely flhA, fliF, and fliI [22, 23]. Microarray and proteomic experiments have suggested that these genes are expressed at mid-cycle [23]. The proteins encoded by these genes are paralogs of the T3S proteins CdsV, CdsJ and CdsN, respectively. In motile bacteria, FlhA orthologs are integral membrane proteins required for flagellin export and swarming differentiation which interact with soluble components of the flagellar system [24, 25]. FliF orthologs are integral membrane components that form the membrane and supramembrane (MS) ring [26]. FliF forms a base for the other membrane components to form a molecular pore, through which components of the flagella that exist outside the cell membrane are exported. The flagellar ATPase, FliI orthologs, provide energy for construction of the flagellum by aiding in export of flagellar proteins outside the bacterial cell where the proteins form molecular complexes [27, 28]. The presence of FliI, FlhA and FliF in C.

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