The use of heat-treated clotting factors in patients with haemoph

The use of heat-treated clotting factors in patients with haemophilia effectively stopped AIDS transmission; however, all licensed technologies were not equally effective at inactivating HIV. Rare transmissions of Cobimetinib manufacturer HIV occurred globally, most likely by clotting factor concentrates subjected to a single method of viral inactivation. Lacking clinical data and robust validated methods of testing inactivating technology, these seroconversions could not be predicted in advance. Achieving complete safety depended on identifying and investigating sufficient numbers of seroconversions to statistically isolate less effective methods of viral inactivation. A number of factors acted as barriers to

identifying and eliminating the residual risk. First, the high frequency of undiagnosed HIV infections already existing in the haemophilia population confused identification of possible new seroconversions due to heat-treated factors. Additional Saracatinib clinical trial factors were the continued sale of untreated products, the lack of clinical data on the effectiveness of heat-treated factors, the rarity of seroconversions and the delay in sharing vital information. Hopefully, knowledge and recognition

of these factors will improve and expedite responses to future unknown epidemics. The author stated that he has no interests which might be perceived as posing a conflict or bias. The observations expressed in this manuscript are solely the responsibility of the author based on his personal experiences. They may or may not reflect the official opinions and policies of the Federal Agencies of the United States Government identified in the manuscript. “
“Ankle fusion in patients with haemophilia is a well-accepted treatment for end-stage arthropathy. However, current published outcome data are based on small sample sizes and generally short-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of ankle fusion in a large group MCE of haemophilic patients treated at a single institution. The results

of 57 ankle fusions performed on 45 patients between 1971 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were gathered for type and severity of haemophilia, HIV status, fixation technique, postoperative complications and requirement of additional surgeries. A modified American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was calculated for 20 ankles available for follow-up. Patients were followed for a mean of 6.6 years. There were no intra-operative or immediate postoperative complications related to fusion of the ankle. The overall non-union rate was 10.4% for tibio-talar fusion and 8.3% for sub-talar fusion. This rate was reduced to 3.7% and 5.6%, respectively, after the introduction of newer surgical techniques in 1995. None of these non-unions required revision surgery.

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