The vaccines were expensive to make, and despite time controlled

The vaccines were expensive to make, and despite time controlled reactions, the site of linkage of the carrier to hCGβ or HSD, had inevitable variations. We decided therefore to make a recombinant Dasatinib mouse vaccine in which hCGβ gene was fused at the C-terminal end with

B subunit of Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LTB) (Fig. 6). The choice of LTB as carrier was based on the consideration that it is free of regions causing immune suppression. It is a good mucosal adjuvant75 and generates both IgG and IgA antibody response.76 The complex hCGβ-LTB was cloned and expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris as a secretory protein. The conjugate was purified using Wnt inhibitor ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by ion-exchange chromatography.72 It was absorbed on alhydrogel for immunization. MIP at 5 × 107 autoclaved bacilli was injected as adjuvant intramuscularly. Three primary injections of hCGβ-LTB along with MIP at fortnightly interval generated in every Balb/c mouse bioeffective anti-hCG antibodies. On day 37, the titers were already several fold higher than 50 ng/mL in every mouse. A booster around the 4th month enhanced further the titers to well over 100-folds higher than the protective threshold of 50 ng/mL. The immune response was reversible with antibodies declining with time, but was still well above 50 ng/mL after

8 months. Immunogenicity of the recombinant vaccine was also observed in inbred mice of different genetic background,

mafosfamide encompassing haplotypes H-2d, H-2k, H-2b, H-2s, and H-2q. This vaccine has received the approval of the Indian National Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation. It is being produced under GMP conditions for pre-clinical toxicology. If found safe, it is planned to conduct clinical trials with this vaccine for preventing pregnancy, as well as for its possible therapeutic action on cancers expressing hCG or its subunits. Besides the three vaccines described earlier, namely hCGβ-TT,77 hCGβ carboxy terminal peptide (CTP)-DT70, and HSD-TT,4,62 which went up to the stage of phase I safety and/or phase II efficacy clinical trials for fertility control, the following are the other vaccines devised against hCG, which are primarily being tested against cancers expressing hCG. In view of the carrier-induced immune suppression brought by the hCGβ vaccine linked to TT as carrier, the carrier was replaced by T non-B peptides peptides, which could communicate across various MHC haplotypes, but not have disadvantage of TT. Gupta et al.78 conjugated hCGβ to three promiscuous Th peptides from the measles virus fusion protein, influenza virus hemagglutinin, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Conjugates were adsorbed on alum and studied for their immunogenicity in mice of different haplotypes.

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