Then, the obtained wave function is the same as the standard harmonic oscillator, where the center is displaced by x cl (t). Next, we apply time-dependent first-order perturbation theory to calculate the elastic Anlotinib cell line charged impurity scattering rate between the two oscillating

Landau states, the initial Ψ n , and the final state Ψ m [6–10, 20–24]: W n,m = 1 / τ, with τ being the elastic charged impurity scattering time. We find that the average effective distance advanced by the electron in every scattering jump [6–10, 20–24], Δ X MW = Δ X 0 + A cosw τ, where Δ X 0, is the advanced distance in the dark [26]. Finally, the longitudinal conductivity σ xx is given by, (1) with E being the energy [26], and the average electron drift velocity. NCT-501 solubility dmso To obtain R xx , we use the usual tensor relationships . Importantly, resistance is directly proportional to conductivity: R xx ∝σ xx . Thus, finally, the dependence of the magnetoresistance with radiation is given by: Results

and discussion For ultraclean samples, γ is very small; for experimental magnetic fields [19], . This Trichostatin A mouse condition will dramatically affect the average advanced distance by electron in every scattering process. In contrast with standard samples where electrons always find available empty states where to be scattered, in ultraclean samples, we can clearly find two different scenarios that are described in Figure 1. Figure 1 Schematic diagrams of electronic transport for a ultraclean sample (narrow Landau levels and weak overlapping). (a) In the lower part, no MW field is present. (b) The orbits move backwards during the jump, and the scattering ends around the central part of a LL (grey stripes); then, we have full contribution to the current. (c) The scattering jump ends in between LL (white stripes), giving rise to a negligible contribution to the current because the low density Rucaparib in vivo of final Landau states. (d) We depict a ZRS situation. Dotted line represents the Fermi level before the scattering

jump; white and black circles represent empty and occupied orbits after the jump, respectively. In the four panels of energy versus distance, the grey stripes are LL tilted by the action of the DC electric field in the x direction. Here, LL are narrow ( ) and hardly overlap each other, leaving regions with a low density of states in between (white stripes). Therefore, we can observe regularly alternating grey (many states) and white (few states) stripes equally spread out. The first scenario corresponds (see Figure 1b) to an electron being scattered to the central part of a LL. As a result, the scattering can be completed with empty states to be occupied; we obtain full contribution to the conductivity and R x x . In Figure 1c, we describe the second scenario where the electron scatters to a region in between LL with a very low density of states.

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