These observations suggest that the RMP-resistance

of M

These observations suggest that the RMP-resistance

of M. tuberculosis strains carrying rpoB mutated genes was not dependent on the rpoB expression level but resulted from the host genetic background that influence the drug-resistance phenotype. Discussion All bacteria achieve resistance to RMP by mutations in a defined region of the RNA polymerase subunit β. In M. tuberculosis, approximately 95% of RMP resistant clinical isolates carry a mutation in the rpoB gene [8]. On the other hand, many isolates from M. avium and M. intracellulare present a natural resistance to RMP as a result of an efficient permeability and exclusion barrier [26, 27]. Mutations in rpoB generally result in high level resistance to RMP. However, specific mutations in codons selleck compound 511, 516, 518 and 522 can result in a lower AZD6244 resistance to RMP [14, 28, 29]. The role of some rpoB mutations (H526Y, S531L, D516V) in causing resistance was confirmed by genetic transformation experiments [14, 30]. Several dozen other mutations identified in

the rpoB gene of RMP-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates have never been confirmed by genetic cloning [12, 31–35]. Nowadays, when many genetic techniques are well developed, the knowledge about mutations connected to RMP-resistance is becoming used in the rapid identification of drug resistance [11, 12, 36, 37]. However, the utility of these techniques depends on the precise information about the role of any given mutation in RMP resistance. In this study we have engineered a genetic system which is helpful in the verification of the relationship between

the presence of a given mutation in rpoB and RMP resistance. We have found that rpoB gene carrying either D516V or S531L mutation causes resistance to RMP when introduced into the M. tuberculosis hosts what Sirolimus molecular weight was in agreement with previous investigations [14]. On the other hand, when mutated rpoB was introduced into drug sensitive M. tuberculosis laboratory or clinical strains, the other substitutions in position 516 (D/Y; D/G), even when supported with Q510H, M515I or S512I identified in RMP-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical strains, did not result in a significant increase of RMP-resistance. Other authors previously reported the identification of D516Y substitutions of rpoB in M. tuberculosis resistance to a high level of RMP [21, 38], low level of RMP [14] and in strains sensitive to RMP [39]. Taken together, this suggests that D516Y/G substitutions in rpoB are not sufficient to result in RMP-resistance of M. tuberculosis. The substitutions in codon 526 (H/Y, D, R, L, P) were usually identified in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates highly resistant to RMP [14, 23, 38]. In this paper we have provided direct evidence that mutation H526D in rpoB is responsible for RMP-resistance when introduced into M. tuberculosis host.

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