This effect is consistent with the reduction of inflammation indu

This effect is consistent with the reduction of inflammation induced by vaccine strain CVD1208 compared with its ShET-containing parents (Kotloff et al., 2004, 2007). Of course, the participation of ShET-1 or the Pic protease in Shigella-induced inflammation is not ruled out by these clinical studies. Future investigation to determine the role of ShET-2 with other Osp proteins in inflammation induced either in vivo or in vitro by Shigella will help to elucidate how Osp proteins interact with each other to modulate

the host immune response. Shigella invasion of epithelial cells and the subsequent inflammatory process induced by this microorganism is thought to be the most important aspect of Shigella infection Kinase Inhibitor Library clinical trial (Levine et al., 2007; Phalipon et al., selleckchem 2008). The data presented here indicate that ShET-2 might be another virulence factor that contributes to IL-8 secretion. Previous reports indicate that the NFκB pathway is involved in Shigella-induced IL-8 secretion by epithelial cells (Philpott et al., 2000; Singer & Sansonetti, 2004). The involvement of ShET-2 in this particular pathway is currently being investigated. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that the ShET-2 is secreted and translocated to cells by T3SS, and that this protein might participate in the Shigella-induced IL-8 secretion in epithelial cells. This work was supported by grant NIH

AI033096 to J.P.N., FONDECYT 1040539 to C.S.T., FONDECYT 11080180 to M.J.F and NIH AI059223 to E.M.B. We are indebted and pleased to acknowledge Drs Chihiro Sasakawa and Hiroshi Ashida for the plasmids pTB-IpaH9.8–TEM-FLAG and pTB-GST–TEM-FLAG. We also thank Drs Miguel O’Ryan, Anthony Maurelli, Shelley M. Payne and Claude Parsot for helpful discussions and Lidia Cantero for technical assistance. “
“Is increased leukocyte chemotactic activity (CA) from gestational tissues necessary for term or preterm labor in guinea pigs? Tissue extracts were prepared from pregnant guinea pig decidua–myometrium, cervix, fetal

membranes (amniochorion), and placenta during early third trimester (n = 8), term not in labor (TNL, n = 5), and term spontaneous labor (TL, n = 6), RU486-induced preterm labor (PTL, n = 6), or controls 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (cPTL, n = 5). Leukocyte CA was assessed using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Extract chemokine and maternal progesterone concentrations were quantified by enzyme immunoassay. Only the extracts from amniochorion demonstrated increased CA through late gestation and labor. In contrast, CA was decreased in extracts from amniochorion and cervix from animals after RU486-induced PTL. Maternal progesterone concentrations remained high in all groups. Leukocyte CA of intrauterine tissues is increased in term spontaneous labor. However, RU486-induced preterm labor occurs in the absence of increased CA. “
“DCs represent the major cell type leading to polarized T-helper (Th) cell responses in vivo.

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