timonense CSUR P32T – + + – M bouchedurhonense CSUR P34T – + + -

timonense CSUR P32T – + + – M. bouchedurhonense CSUR P34T – + + – M. arosiense DSM 45069T – + + – Using optic microscopy, electron microscopy and culturing methods, we herein used the MAC species as model organisms to study the location of environmental mycobacteria into the amoebal cyst and we further compared these observations with previously published data to find out that residing into the exocyst is a unique characteristic of environmental mycobacteria among amoeba-resistant organisms. Nutlin-3a Results and Discussion The 11 MAC strains (8 species) studied survived, but did not grow, after a 24-hour incubation in Page’s modified Neff’s

Amoeba Saline (PAS) at 32°C. Microscopic examination of infected amoeba demonstrated that all MAC organisms were entrapped in A. polyphaga trophozoites and were visible in 3- to 5-μm large “”Mycobacterium containing vacuoles”" as early as 24 hours post-infection; 1 to 12 such check details vacuoles were observed per infected amoeba (Figure 1). The mean number of “”Mycobacterium containing vacuoles”" was not statistically different between the various MAC species. Electron microscopy observations revealed that, in the “”Mycobacterium containing vacuoles”" containing only one organism, there was a close apposition of the vacuole membrane all over the mycobacterial cell surface (Figure 2A, B), which was

tightly apposed all over the organism cell wall, in contrast to organisms in vacuoles that contained several GDC-0449 ic50 organisms as previously described in macrophages [36]. In this study, we did not resolved whether the presence of several mycobacteria within one vacuole resulted from the uptake of clumped mycobacteria, the replication of mycobacteria or the coalescence of several, single-organism vacuoles remains undetermined. Doxorubicin in vivo In any case, our observations agree with previous studies that M. avium is initially entrapped in the vacuoles of amoebal trophozoites [18, 23, 24, 21, 22] and macrophages [36] (Table 1). In Dictyostelium, M.

avium accumulated within vacuoles decorated with vacuolin, the Dictyostelium flotilin homologue, but it did not break the vacuole membrane, in contrast to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum. This result was linked to the absence of a particular region of difference (RD1), which in M. tuberculosis and M. marinum, encodes a type seven secretion system along with secreted effectors [23]. Figure 1 Clusters of Mycobacterium colombiense (▶) in trophozoïtes of the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga Linc-AP1 (Ziehl Neelsen staining after a 24-hour incubation at 32°C). Scale bar = 10 μm. Figure 2 Transmission electron-microscopy images of trophozoites and amoebal cysts infected by M. colombiense (A and B. Scale bar = 500 nm), M. avium, M. marseillense (C, D and E. Scale bar = 2 μm) Ec: Exocyst, Ed: Endocyst, Cr: Clear region, M: Mycobacterium, P: Phagosome. Electron microscopy further disclosed that the 11 MAC strains under study were entrapped inside of the A.

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