To investigate whether M1 activity caused the 6–14 Hz activity or

To investigate whether M1 activity caused the 6–14 Hz activity or simply coordinated ongoing activity, we also calculated STPC in the DS surrounding application of ICMS to M1 (Figure 5C) and found that STPC was significantly enhanced after M1 ICMS (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected), suggesting that strong ICMS-induced activity in M1 produces entrainment that

drives the DS 6–14 Hz oscillation. These peaks in STPC are significantly greater than values obtained with surrogate data sets in which spike or event times are shuffled (Experimental Procedures). Importantly, M1 ICMS is also followed by an enhancement MK-2206 mw of 6–14 Hz amplitude in the DS (Figure 5D; p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected), suggesting that strong M1 activity drives the 6–14 Hz activity in the DS rather than coordinating ongoing activity. Interestingly, the peak in 6–14 Hz amplitude following ICMS precedes the peak in STPC. This amplitude peak is again greater than values

obtained with surrogate data sets. Together, these data suggest that, after learning, spiking in M1 or DS produces a consistent LFP phase in the other region, resulting in reinforcement of coherent dynamics throughout the network. In summary, we have shown that coherence develops in corticostriatal networks during learning with high temporal precision and, importantly, specifically involving cells that control behavioral output, even when these cells are intermingled 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase with other neuronal populations. This specificity suggests that coherence can serve to enhance communication Selleckchem IDH inhibitor between task-relevant populations and bias local competitive interactions in their favor. This, in turn, allows for rapid modulation of the functional connectivity between local ensembles and distant

brain structures and for flexible routing of specific signals throughout the brain as these signals become immediately relevant for behavior. Interestingly, this cell-specific coherence occurred predominantly in the alpha band, between 6 and 14 Hz. This is consistent with recent work showing low-frequency coherence between M1 spikes and DS spikes (Koralek et al., 2012). The slight shift in frequency between spike-spike and spike-field coherence in the same task may reflect that spike-spike coherence measures similarity between output spike trains, while spike-field coherence measures similarity between the output of one region and synchronous input to another (Zeitler et al., 2006). Differences between these measures in the dominant frequency of coherence could therefore reflect individual neurons not spiking on every cycle of the population rhythm or performing temporal integration of inputs. A number of distinct rhythms have been previously observed in this frequency range.

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