Tuber periderm responses to infection were limited, yet US-8 isol

Tuber periderm responses to infection were limited, yet US-8 isolates infected the periderm more often than US-22 isolates. There were significant differences among the cultivars tested but cv. Jacqueline Lee was the most resistant overall. Although isolates of P. infestans genotype US-22 were less aggressive in comparison with US-8 isolates, US-22 isolates still infected

potato tubers and were as aggressive us US-8 isolates on some cultivars. Management of late blight caused by isolates of US-22 through host selleck inhibitor resistance may be feasible but imposes a different set of criteria for consideration from those that US-8 imposed. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is the causal agent of late blight, which is the most devastating disease on potato

worldwide (Fry 2008). Because the disease was first reported in the 1840s (de Bary 1876), outbreaks have occurred intermittently with different degrees of impact. Since the global re-emergence of late blight in the 1980s (Fry and Goodwin 1997b), new and more aggressive genotypes have impacted potato (Hu et al. 2012) and tomato crops (Chowdappa et al. 2013). One genotype designated as US-1 dominated the SAR245409 global P. infestans population until the last decade of the 20th century. Several genotypes then appeared and caused comparatively more severe losses than US-1 (Spielman et al. 1991; Goodwin et al. 1994; Fry and Goodwin 1997a; Fry 2008). Vleeshouwers et al. (2010) documented the recent impact of late blight during the epidemics in the United States and Europe from 2005 to 2008, showing the capacity of this pathogen to adapt and evolve Pregnenolone causing disease. The genotype US-8 (mating type

A2, mefenoxam-insensitive, GPI 100/110/122) has been described as one of the most aggressive genotypes to date, due to the aggressiveness of isolates on foliage (Goodwin et al. 1996; Kirk et al. 2001a). US-8 isolates also proved more aggressive on potato tubers causing faster appearance of tuber rot symptoms than isolates observed previously (Kirk et al. 2009, 2010). The US-8 genotype quickly became predominant in potato cropping systems following its first detection in 1989 in north and central Mexico (Goodwin et al. 1992, 1998). The appearance of US-8 and the displacement of US-1 were characterized by an increase in the severity of tuber blight (Lambert and Currier 1997). A similar case was observed recently in Europe: the genotype 13_A2, also known as Blue-13, appeared during 2006–2008 and became the dominant genotype in Great Britain and mainland Europe (Lees et al. 2008; Cooke et al. 2011, 2012) and since then in India (Chowdappa et al. 2013). Genotype 13_A2 characteristically has an increased aggressiveness on potato foliage and tubers in comparison with previous genotypes detected in the region (Cooke et al. 2011).

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