The lactating and NPNL women were a subset of women who were participating in a larger, longitudinal study designed to investigate the influence of lactation on bone. Details of these women have been reported previously  and . This paper includes data from 48 women who lactated for more than 3 months and 23 NPNL women studied concurrently. It also includes one extra NPNL and one lactating woman whose data were not available at the time the previous papers were completed. check details The inclusion of NPNL women in the study enabled consideration of the potential skeletal changes in women due to advancing age and also
Vemurafenib in vitro possible shifts in DXA performance over the study period. Approval for the study was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the MRC Dunn Nutrition Unit (of which MRC Human Nutrition Research was formerly a part) and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Lactating mothers visited the Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, UK at approximately 2 weeks postpartum, and for repeat measurements at 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. An additional visit was made 3 months after breast feeding had stopped for women who lactated for more than 9 months. Peak-lactation was defined as 3 months postpartum for the 13 mothers who breast-fed for 3–6 months and 6 months postpartum for the 35 mothers who breast-fed for more than 6 months. Post-lactation was defined as 1-year postpartum for the 25 women who lactated for less than 9 months and 3 months post-lactation for the 21 women who lactated for more than 9 months. Two
women were unable to be measured post-lactation because they had become pregnant again. All but one of the women was amenorrheic at the Gefitinib research buy time of their peak-lactation visit and all women had resumed menstruation at the time of their post-lactation visit. Measurements were performed on the following days postpartum, expressed as mean (standard deviation [SD], range): 2 weeks postpartum 17 (5, 10–42) days, peak-lactation 159 (42, 85–226) days, post-lactation 426 (131, 269–932) days. Results reported for lactating women are changes from 2 weeks postpartum to peak-lactation and from 2 weeks postpartum to post-lactation. Results reported for NPNL women are changes from baseline to 319 (67, 152–406) days after baseline. Bone mineral measurements on the left hip were performed using DXA (QDR-1000W; Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA). Hip scans were analysed using the hip structural analysis (HSA) program (version 1) .