It is assumed to exert multiple functions including packaging of

It is assumed to exert multiple functions including packaging of pre-mRNA, regulation of alternative splicing, and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of mRNA 7. HnRNP-A2 appears to be ubiquitously expressed, although the level of expression may greatly vary between different tissues. Interestingly,

hnRNP-A2 is overexpressed in RA synovial tissue, where it is detectable not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm of macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes 8. Autoantibodies BMS-777607 purchase to hnRNP-A2 (which are also known as anti-RA33 Ab) are present in approximately 30% of RA patients 9, but also in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease 9. Remarkably, however, epitope recognition was found to differ between the three disorders 10. Furthermore, also T cells from peripheral blood and synovial fluid of RA patients were found to

react to hnRNP-A2, in about 60% of the patients 8. Interestingly, autoimmunity to hnRNP-A2 has been observed in TNF-transgenic (Tg) mice 11, which develop arthritis spontaneously, and is a dominant immunological event in pristane-induced arthritis in rats 12. Altogether, the results suggest that this protein is an important and potentially pathogenic autoantigen in animal models of arthritis and in RA. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to characterize putative pathogenic T-cell epitopes of hnRNP-A2. To achieve this goal, we started with a comprehensive investigation of MHC binders among a library click here these of 15-mer peptides spanning the entire human hnRNP-A2 protein. Peptides of this length can bind directly to MHC class II molecules on the cell surface

of APC where they can stimulate peptide-specific T cells. This method allows the analysis of all possible determinants regardless of whether the peptide is dominant or cryptic following natural processing. Then, to identify hnRNP-A2-specific T-cell epitopes in patients with RA, we used a sensitive IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, which detects in vivo-generated antigen-specific T cells in a low frequency range 13. The data obtained were confirmed in proliferation assays and reveal the presence of an immunodominant T-cell epitope associated to active RA. We synthesized 280 15-mer peptides overlapping by 13 or 14 amino acids and spanning the whole hnRNP-A2 sequence. These peptides were tested by competitive ELISA for binding to the RA-associated DR*0101 and DR*0401 molecules. The results obtained show that most epitopes binding to either DR*0101 or DR*0401 were localized in the N-terminal half (first 170 amino acids) of the hnRNP-A2 sequence (Fig. 1). Presence of an MHC epitope was revealed by 4–7 consecutive binding peptides. Frequently, many more consecutive peptides were binding, indicating overlapping epitopes. Six major determinants were found to bind to both DR*0101 and DR*0401: peptides no.

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In this case, it has not been established whether the long-term r

In this case, it has not been established whether the long-term residence of the T cells in the sensory ganglion is dependent on prolonged antigen exposure due to continued viral gene expression; however, when we consider the initial site of HSV-1 infection in the skin, it appears that prolonged

antigen exposure is unnecessary to keep memory T cells on site. Scarification of flank skin and infection with HSV-1 is followed EMD 1214063 ic50 by viral replication in epidermal cells and latent infection of neurons in the local dorsal root ganglia. After the skin lesions heal and virus is no longer detectable, CD8+ T cells specific for HSV-1 remain behind in the epidermis. Subsequent ipsilateral versus contralateral flank rechallenge Epacadostat research buy with virus reveals that the ipsilateral side is much more resistant to viral replication in the epidermis and this protection is T-cell mediated 14. In this case, it is unlikely that memory T cells are retained in skin due to prolonged antigen presentation

because infectious virus is not produced in the infected neurons to traffic back to the original site of infection. Furthermore, when previously infected skin is grafted to a naïve animal and nerve endings are severed, the HSV-specific T cells remain in the graft 14. Skin-resident CD8+ T cells, unlike memory cells in the spleen, express high levels of integrins CD103 and VLA-1. The known ligand for CD103 is E-cadherin which is expressed at high levels by the epithelial cells. Although HSV-1 does not recrudesce in mice and spread from the latently infected ganglia back to the skin, this model system provides a wonderful example of how adaptive immune memory attempts

C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) to predict the site of re-entry or reactivation of an infectious agent. Fixed drug eruptions provide intriguing evidence from the clinic that the skin is a patchwork of fixed or sessile resident memory T cells. Observations in some patients show specific skin lesions at reproducible sites on their skin when administered a drug orally 15. The lesions have been described as classic delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions with CD8+ T cells as the mediators but in which the trigger is delivered systemically and the reactive T cells are local. Whether the drug or its metabolites cause the reaction is not known, nor is the identity of the original insult that generates such a fixed site of local memory. In addition to memory cells that remain for extended periods in the epidermis at sites of prior infection, a large fraction of circulating memory T cells expresses the adhesion molecule cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) which mediates preferential migration into and through the skin. Clark has estimated that 20 billion memory T cells are present in our skin, outnumbering those present in the entire circulation 6. Such tissue-selective homing may be imprinted on the responding T cells in skin-draining lymph nodes.

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To rule out whether protection against HIV infection in HESN part

To rule out whether protection against HIV infection in HESN participants could be the result of CCR5 receptor mutation, we compared heterozygous (CCR5/ccr5) and homozygous (ccr5 /ccr5) mutation in HESN participants with HIV-1+

partners and the HIV-1+ group. The heterozygous mutation was present in seven HESN participants (30%) in one (4%) of the HIV-1+ partners and in four of the HIV-1+ group (4%). Homozygous mutation selleck inhibitor associated with protection against infection was not found in any of the three groups. We found a significant increase in KIR3DS1 receptor (homozygous or heterozygous for this allele) in the HESN group compared with HIV-1+ partners (OR = 24, P = 0·000003) and HIV-1+ group (OR = 8·15, P = 0·00066). These results suggest that the sole presence of KIR3DS1 could have a protective role in HIV-1 infection

KU-57788 molecular weight in HESN individuals. Similar results were observed when we analysed the combination of KIR3DS1 with HLA-Bw4 alleles in HESN individuals versus their HIV-1+ partners (OR = 15·24, P = 0·0003) and the HIV-1+ group (OR = 6·86; P = 0·0001; Table 1). Ravet et al.[15] reported in some exposed uninfected (EUs) the concomitant expression of lowered inhibitory KIR3DL1 transcript levels and high activating KIR3DS1 levels resulted a KIR3DS1/KIR3DL1 radio that may confer an enhanced activating NK cell repertoire profile to these EUs. The specific combination of both activating and inhibitory KIR3DS1/KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4 alleles has been associated with delayed progression to AIDS based on epidemiological studies.[9-11] Carrington et al.[16] indicate that it is also possible that the various KIR3DL1/KIR3DS1 molecules might differ in their binding affinity second for their HLA ligand, which may in turn influence AIDS progression. HLA ligand binding for KIR3DS1 is still controversial. Carr et al.[7] found that the soluble KIR3DS1-Ig fusion proteins did not bind to Epstein–Barr virus-transformed B lymphoid cell lines

transfected with HLA-Bw4-80I or 80T allotypes, suggesting that KIR3DS1 does not recognize HLA-Bw4 ligand. This may be peptide-dependent. Conversely, Guerini et al.[17] only observed this significant increase in HESN individuals who were homozygous KIR3DS1 in combination with Bw4 with respect to HIV-1+ individuals. Homozygosity for KIR3DS1 was present at low percentages in all populations analysed in our study. However, the frequency of heterozygosity for KIR3DS1 is found in high levels in the normal population, indicating an important Amerindian influence in northern Argentina, as pointed out by some authors.[3, 18] When we analysed just the Bw4 alleles (homozygous or heterozygous) we found no differences between the studied groups, although Melo da Silva et al.[19] reported a significant association between HLA-Bw4 and low levels of viraemia in HIV-infected Brazilian patients. On the other hand, Welzel et al.

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Serial positron emission tomography (PET) scans showed significan

Serial positron emission tomography (PET) scans showed significant increases in cortical fluorodeoxyglucose after treatment.[126] Because stem cells can be genetically modified to carry new genes and have high migratory capacity after brain Idasanutlin transplantation,[6, 11, 17] they could be used in place of fibroblasts that are known for their immobility following transplantation[43] for delivery of NGF to prevent degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In learning deficit AD model rats induced by okadaic acid injection, transplantation of rat NSCs infected with adenovirus-NGF produced cognitive performance.[127] In a recent study, we used human NSCs in place of rodent NSCs or human

fibroblasts to deliver NGF in learning deficit AD model rats. Intrahippocampal injection of ibotenic acid caused severe neuronal loss, resulting in learning and memory deficit.[128] NGF protein released by F3.NGF human NSCs in culture media is 10-fold over the control F3.NSCs at 1.2 μg/106 cells/day. Intra-hippocampal transplantation of F3.NGF cells was found

to express NGF and fully improved the learning and memory function of ibotenic learning deficit animals. Transplanted F3.NGF human NSCs were found all over the brain and differentiated learn more into neurons and astrocytes.[128] In another study, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, secreted by transplanted mouse NSCs was responsible in enhancing cognitive function in triple transgenic AD mice that express

pathogenic forms of amyloid precursor protein, presenilin and tau. In these animals cognition was improved without altering Aβ or tau pathology.[129] In other studies in experimental rats with nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) lesions induced by ibotenic acid, transplantation of mouse or rat neural precursor cells promoted behavioral recovery.[130, 131] In AD Staurosporine chemical structure patients, dysfunction of the presynaptic cholinergic system is one of the causes of cognitive disorders where decreased activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which is responsible for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis, is observed.[132] To date, AD therapy has largely been based on small molecules designed to increase ACh concentration by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase.[133] Since therapies with these drugs is only palliative without potential protection against progressive tissue destruction, there is a need for effective therapies for patients with AD, and stem cell-based therapeutic approaches targeting AD should fulfill this requirement. We have recently generated a human NSC line over-expressing human ChAT gene and transplanted these F3.ChAT NSCs into the brain of rat AD models which was generated by intra-hippocampal injection of KA which resulted in severe neuronal loss and profound learning and memory deficit.

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5°C with the majority of studies using 35°C or 35 5°C In the BTM

5°C with the majority of studies using 35°C or 35.5°C. In the BTM group patients underwent programmed cooling or isothermic dialysis, the temperature in the intervention group that underwent programmed cooling varied between 35.3°C and 35.7°C. The stability of the patients during HD also varied with Navitoclax a mixture of stable and unstable patients studied. A total of eight studies addressed the issue of IDH and cool temperature dialysis either using a fixed temperature reduction (6) or BTM (2).45,53–57

The overall rate of IDH was 7.1 times greater than in conventional dialysis (95% CI, 6.7–12.4) compared with thermo-regulated HD. In studies examining fixed temperature reduction the rate of IDH was 9.5 times less compared with the control while for those studies comparing isothermic cooling or programmed cooling the rate was 2 times less. When the data were adjusted for studies that had no IDH in the intervention group,45,56 the overall rate of IDH in cool dialysis was 2.6 times less compared with conventional dialysis (95% CI, 1.5–3.8). There was also a benefit on blood pressure post dialysis, with the higher values observed in cool dialysis, attributed to increased total peripheral

resistance. There were no differences in symptoms as reported click here by the patients. The issue of the optimal magnitude of temperature decrease was addressed in a recent trial (not included in the systematic review).58 Fourteen patients with a history of IDH were studied in a cross-over randomized trial. Isothermic dialysis was compared with ‘cooling’ dialysis (decrease core temperature by 0.5°C), with thermoneutral dialysis used as the control. The nadir of systolic blood pressure (SBP) during isothermic and thermoneutral dialysis was lower than during ‘cooling dialysis’ suggesting that greater stability is conferred by a small decrease in core body temperature. Temperature control can improve blood pressure stability in a IDH-prone population without causing discomfort or morbidity. The procedure is simple, safe and efficient to use. The check early concerns regarding dialysis quality

have not materialized; however, long-term prospective validation is lacking. The precise temperature at which the benefit is derived needs to be balanced with symptoms of hypothermia. It is also likely that individual patients have a different temperature threshold at which a benefit to haemodynamic stability is conferred. More studies using the BTM devices are needed to further establish its role, especially in the adjustment of core body temperature based on the individual patient susceptibility to IDH. This would ideally occur in the form a randomized trial comparing fixed temperature reduction, isothermic dialysis and dialysis with a small decrease in core body temperature. Future studies of temperature controlled dialysis need to show a reduction in morbidity and mortality as well as a cost benefit in reducing hospitalization rates.

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OPG is secreted by osteoblasts within the stem cell niche 33 and

OPG is secreted by osteoblasts within the stem cell niche 33 and inhibits the differentiation of osteoclasts 34. Induction of cell proliferation does not belong to its known qualities. The CXC chemokines have well-documented neutrophil chemotactic, angiogenic and mitogenic properties. Among these, the Gro proteins comprise a family of melanoma growth stimulatory factors. They can PLX4032 cost support tumor genesis (Gro 1, 35), angiogenesis and malignant cell proliferation (Gro 2 and 3 36, also termed MIP-2α and 2β). The GRO genes were originally isolated from transformed fibroblasts.

They belong to a superfamily of genes comprising, amongst others, platelet factor 4 and IL-8 37. In the past, none of the Gro proteins suppressed myeloid progenitor formation or synergized with other suppressive chemokines 31; Gro 1 and 2 instead blocked suppressive effects caused by members of the same superfamily. In our assays, Gro 3 caused a significant proliferation of CD34+ cells, whereas Gro 1 and Gro 2

had no effect. Cell expansion rates of Gro 3 were only topped by those of IL-32. IL-32 was first identified as an inducer of TNF-α 38 with an important role in inflammatory diseases 39 and viral 40, 41 and bacterial infections 42. Our data suggest that IL-32 alone can induce the expansion of HPCs leading to a ten-fold higher cumulative cell number after 3 wk in Torin 1 cell line culture and a two-fold higher cell number after 1 wk; the expanded cells retained the CD34 antigen and a stem cell-like morphology. Furthermore, their plating efficiency was 1.5 times higher than that of HPCs cultured in SCF, while the

total numbers of CFU-GM colonies were equal in both groups. The presence of IL-32 in vascular ECs was confirmed recently 43, 44, though controversial opinions exist as to whether it is a secreted protein or not 45, 46. We, too, share the opinion that IL-32 might not be secreted or produced to detectable levels by naive ECs, as the signal intensities in our microarray analysis and mRNA Reverse transcriptase in non-stimulated ECs were rather low. Upon treatment with IL-1β, however, IL-32 can be detected in the supernatant at unprecedented high amounts 43. It is very unlikely that this amount should come solely from apoptotic ECs, though this has been proposed 45. As IL-32 was found to be secreted by lymphocytes 47 and is listed within the GO category “extracellular space”, stimulated ECs could secrete it as well. In synergism with the nucleotide oligomerization domains (NOD) 1 and 2, IL-32 initiates caspase 3 and induces the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 48. Both domains were most recently identified on BM-derived HPCs 49. This also explains why monoclonal antibodies against IL-32 did not completely inhibit its expansive effect: the complex of IL-32/αIL-32 could still activate nucleotide oligomerization domains and promote HPC expansion. As IL-32 can do both, i.e.

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In addition, it has been shown that treatment with ATG is associa

In addition, it has been shown that treatment with ATG is associated with the expansion of FoxP3+ T cells in vivo and suggests a shift in Treg to a Teff ratio. Despite this, CD4+ and CD8+ memory cells are resistant to depletion by ATG and these cell subsets expand

over the initial 6 months post-transplantation [73]. The fact that memory cells survive deletion may explain why patients do not suffer opportunistic infections post-ATG therapy. However, these cells can contribute Dasatinib chemical structure to early graft injury and loss and, importantly, these cells are more resistant to suppression by Tregs than naive T cells [74]. However, to limit memory T cell expansion (post-induction therapy), transplant recipients are maintained on other immunosuppressive drugs, most commonly a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) such as tacrolimus or cyclosporin A, and an

anti-proliferative agent such as mycophenolate mofetil. It has been proposed that both types of drug inhibit the generation and function of Tregs. Despite this, in animal models in the context of autoimmunity it has been shown that for Tregs to exert their suppressive function tissue inflammation needs to be controlled [75]. It seems Staurosporine in vivo that for Tregs to expand in vivo and exert their suppressive function they require a tolerogenic milieu. In support of this, a recent study analysing the dynamics of the alloimmune response in vivo demonstrated a rapid invasion of effector cells in the grafts followed by the delayed arrival of Tregs that were ineffective at controlling tissue damage [76]. In contrast, when the recipient mice were treated with anti-CD40L

mAb and rapamycin, effector T cell infiltration was delayed and more than 30% of the graft infiltrating T cells were Tregs. Of note, there acetylcholine is good evidence in the literature indicating that rapamycin is superior to tacrolimus for the thymic export and survival of Tregs [77, 78]. In contrast to CNIs, rapamycin appears to be tolerance-permissive by selectively inducing apoptosis or necrosis of alloreactive effector cells while promoting Treg induction [79], expansion [78] and function [80]. This may suggest that rapamycin is the ideal candidate for short-term therapy post-depletion in humans. However, rapamycin monotherapy post-depletion is associated with a high risk of acute rejection [81], and it is not yet clear whether the concomitant therapy with Tregs would be sufficient to prevent this or whether further immunosuppression will be required in the short term. The use of combinations of immunosuppressive agents in the clinical setting highlight the challenge associated with designing protocols that include the infusion of Tregs. Thus, the competing actions of each immunosuppressive drug may have to be considered together with the key question of the timing of cell injection.

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We report herein that Bcl11b is a bifunctional transcriptional re

We report herein that Bcl11b is a bifunctional transcriptional regulator, which is required for the correct expression

of approximately 1000 genes in CD4+CD8+CD3lo double-positive (DP) thymocytes. Bcl11b-deficient DP cells displayed a gene expression program associated with mature CD4+CD8− and CD4−CD8+ single-positive (SP) thymocytes, including upregulation of key transcriptional regulators, such as Zbtb7b and Runx3. Bcl11b interacted with regulatory regions of many dysregulated genes, suggesting a direct role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. However, inappropriate expression of lineage-associated genes did not result in enhanced differentiation, as deletion of Bcl11b Erismodegib in DP cells prevented development of SP thymocytes, and that of canonical NKT cells. These data establish Bcl11b as a crucial transcriptional regulator in thymocytes, in which Bcl11b functions to prevent the premature expression of genes fundamental to the SP and NKT cell differentiation programs. T-cell differentiation is a complex and dynamic process that leads to the production of functionally distinct populations within the thymus – γδ and αβ T-cell subsets, the latter of which include helper CD4+ T cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells,

Treg cells, and NKT cells. Hematopoietic progenitor cells enter the thymus as CD4−CD8− double-negative (DN) cells and proceed through successive steps of maturation. DN thymocytes are further Monoiodotyrosine SB203580 solubility dmso divided into at least four developmental stages based on the differential expression of CD44 and CD25: CD44+CD25− (DN1), CD44+CD25+ (DN2), CD44−CD25+ (DN3), and CD44−CD25− (DN4). γδ T cells

differentiate from DN3 thymocytes, following rearrangement of the β, γ, and δ TCR chains. αβ T cells develop from DN4 thymocytes that further differentiate into CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) CD3loαβTCRlo thymocytes. Positive selection events between the TCR expressed by DP cells and MHC molecules expressed by thymic stromal cells lead to the appearance of mature CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive (SP) CD3hi/TCRhi thymocytes, and NKT cells, all presumably resulting from large-scale changes in gene expression programs. Transcription factors essential for the αβ T-cell developmental programs have been identified 1–3. In particular, Zbtb7b (also known as ThPok) is required for CD4+ T-cell differentiation 4, 5. Zbtb7b is not expressed in DP thymocytes, but is activated downstream of TCR signaling by TOX 6, 7 and GATA3 8, 9, the latter of which appears to function with Zbtb7b in a positive, self-reinforcing loop that is dependent on the duration and intensity of the TCR signal 10–12. Zbtb7b is believed to function primarily as an enforcement factor to lock down the CD4+ phenotype by repressing CD8+ T-cell-associated genes 13–16.

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When infants received lower quality maternal caregiving, temperam

When infants received lower quality maternal caregiving, temperamental fear was inversely related to observed social engagement and aggression. These relations were nonsignificant when infants received

higher quality maternal caregiving. Findings indicate that variations in temperamental fear may predict individual differences in future peer mTOR inhibitor interactions, but sensitive, nonintrusive caregiving behaviors can attenuate these associations. “
“Since the time of the Greeks, philosophers and scientists have wondered about the origins of structure and function. Plato proposed that the origins of structure and function lie in the organism’s nature whereas Aristotle proposed that they lie in its nurture. This nature–nurture dichotomy and the emphasis on the origins question has had a powerful effect on our thinking about development right into modern times. Despite this, empirical selleck findings from various branches of developmental science have made a compelling case that the nature–nurture dichotomy is biologically implausible and, thus, that a search for developmental origins must be replaced

by research into developmental processes. This change in focus recognizes that development is an immensely complex, dynamic, embedded, interdependent, and probabilistic process and, therefore, renders simplistic questions such as whether a particular behavioral capacity is innate or acquired scientifically uninteresting. “
“The study of dyadic interaction plays a major role in infancy research. To advance conceptually informed measurement of dyadic interaction and integration across studies, we examined factor structure of individual parents’ and infants’ measures and dyadic measures from face-to-face interactions in two samples of 6-month-old infants and their parents: mothers from a demographically heterogeneous sample (N = 164), and mothers and fathers (N = 156) from a Caucasian middle-class sample. Results suggested that a) individual and dyadic

measures, and parents’ and infants’ behaviors contribute independent information, b) measures of both valence and process are Montelukast Sodium needed, c) there are context-general and context-specific qualities, and d) structure of dyadic interaction is more similar among mother–infant dyads from independent samples than between mother–infant and father–infant dyads within the same sample. Future research should use multiple measures incorporating valence, temporal processes, contextual influences, and behaviors of individual partners along with dyadic measures to adequately assess the quality of dyadic interaction. “
“Recent research demonstrated that although 24-month-old infants do well on the initial pairing of a novel word and novel object in fast-mapping tasks, they are unable to retain the mapping after a 5 min delay.

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To test this possiblity, we investigated whether newborns can mat

To test this possiblity, we investigated whether newborns can match monkey facial and vocal gestures. Using a paired preference procedure, in Experiment 1 we presented pairs of different visible monkey calls in silence and then in the presence of

one or the other corresponding audible call and compared preferences across the silent and in-sound conditions. In Experiment 2, we presented the same monkey visible calls but this time together with a tone analog of the natural calls in the in-sound trials. We found that newborns looked longer at the matching visible call in the in-sound condition than in the silent condition in both experiments. These findings indicate that multisensory perceptual tuning Alectinib is so broad at birth that it enables newborns to integrate the facial and vocal gestures of other primates and that integration is based on newborns’ detection of audio-visual

temporal synchrony relations. “
“Infant social inhibition is associated with increased risk for LY294002 purchase anxiety later in life. Although both genetic and environmental factors are associated with anxiety, little empirical work has addressed how developing regulatory abilities work with genetic and environmental risk to exacerbate or mitigate problem behaviors. The current study was aimed at addressing this gap in research by investigating an early emerging regulatory behavior, attention control, in association with genetic and environmental risk for anxiety. Participants included 9-month-old adopted infants, their birth mothers, and adoptive parents (N = 361). Lifetime Clomifene diagnosis of birth mother social phobia was obtained using structured interviews. Adoptive parents completed self-report measures of anxiety symptoms. Infant social inhibition and attention control were coded during a stranger interaction and a barrier task,

respectively. Neither adoptive nor birth parent anxiety was directly associated with social inhibition. The association of attention control with social inhibition in infants was moderated by birth and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms. When infants of birth mothers with social phobia were raised by adoptive parents with high self-reported anxiety symptoms, greater attention control was associated with greater social inhibition. However, when raised by adoptive parents with low self-reported anxiety, greater attention control was associated with less social inhibition. “
“Fourteen-month-olds are sensitive to mispronunciations of the vowels and consonants in familiar words (N. Mani & K. Plunkett (2007), Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 252; D. Swingley & R. N. Aslin (2002), Psychological Science, 13, 480). To examine the development of this sensitivity further, the current study tests 12-month-olds’ sensitivity to different kinds of vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words.

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