Hitherto, in vitro studies did not allow monitoring the natural process of NPC-associated Purkinje cell degeneration. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether organotypic slice cultures are usable to monitor the natural process of NPC-associated Purkinje-cell degeneration. We used organotypic cerebellar slice cultures of a well-established NPC mouse model to display the natural history of cerebellar degeneration in vitro and cultivated
them for a prolonged time period of 6 weeks for the first time. Moreover we tested several therapeutic candidates and evaluated their effect on Purkinje-cell survival. Our approach proves that it is possible to monitor and to prevent NPC-related Purkinje cell death reliably in vitro. This is beneficial because in vivo Purkinje cell loss directly translates into clinical signs. Thus, therapeutically interesting compounds can be tested in vitro, not only to correct biochemical abnormalities, but also to Proteases inhibitor show the likelihood of a compound to prevent ataxia. As to be expected from the results GSK3235025 order of previous animal experiments, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin
rescued Purkinje cells. We also discovered that 3-methyladenine preserved Purkinje cell numbers by adjusting the autophagic flux in NPC slices. We provide evidence that cerebellar slice cultures are a powerful in vitro tool to study NPC-associated Purkinje cell death in an organotypic setting. “
“Microscopic dystrophic calcification is a common finding in diverse pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS), including tumours. However, dense widespread macroscopic calcification within tumours is rare and described as case reports in the literature, most often in association with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) [1-6]. With institutional review board approval, Liothyronine Sodium we reviewed
the clinical features, radiology and histopathology of four extensively calcified paediatric LGGs, supplementing our review with targeted molecular analysis of relevance to LGGs. Patients’ ages ranged from 4 to 16 years at presentation, and the male : female ratio was 1:3. Presenting symptoms included headache, dysaesthesia and epilepsy, and the duration of symptoms ranged from 5 weeks to 4 years. Three tumours were located in the cerebrum, and one was thalamic. Three LGGs were well circumscribed with minimal surrounding oedema (Figure 1); one demonstrated significant oedema. All were densely calcified. Contrast enhancement, when evaluated, was heterogeneous. All tumours were totally resected. Post-operatively, three patients were asymptomatic, but one patient presenting with a temporal lobe tumour developed migraine and depression. Microscopy of all four tumours revealed non-infiltrative LGGs with dispersed densely calcified concretions (Figure 2). The architecture of the tumours and their cytology were idiosyncratic, characteristic of neither pilocytic astrocytoma nor diffuse glioma.