There were no significant differences in subject demographics Th

There were no significant differences in subject demographics. The supplementation group had 8 Caucasian and the placebo learn more group consisted of 7 Caucasian and one African American. The supplementation group’s age ranged from 50 to 62 years with an average age of 57.6 years. The placebo group’s age ranged from 50 to73 years with an average

age of 60.6 years. The weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, resting heart rate, blood count, and metabolic parameters including cholesterol were not statistically different between the two groups of subjects. There were no significant differences in baseline exercise parameters between the two groups (Table 1) including anaerobic threshold (2.04 ± 0.26 L/min and 1.89

± 0.16 L/min in the placebo and supplemented groups, respectively). Table 1 Subject baseline characteristics   Supplementation Placebo Male 8 8 Race     African American 0 1 Caucasian 8 7 Age (years) mean ± SD 57.6 ± 4.6 60.6 ± 8.7 Height (inches) 70.6 ± 2.1 70.1 ± 1.4 Weight (pounds) 171.0 ± 16.4 170.6 ± 18.3 BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 2.2 24.4 ± 2.9 SBP (mmHg) 111.9 ± 9.2 117.5 ± 9.6 DBP (mmHg) 75.0 ± 7.6 75.6 ± 7.8 Pulse (beats/min) 56.0 ± 6.5 56.0 ± 11.1 Glucose (mg/dL) 77.1 ± 11.7 81.1 ± 19.1 Hgb (g/dL) 14.6 ± 0.8 14.4 ± 0.8 After one week of study, the anaerobic threshold of the supplement group increased to 2.38 ± 0.18 L/min (an increase of 0.34 ± 0.061 L/min with a p-value of < 0.01), while the anaerobic threshold of the control group marginally changed and was not significant

This increase in anaerobic threshold was preserved at week 3 with an average click here increase of 0.29 ± 0.06 L/min in the supplement group (for a total threshold of 2.33 ± 0.40 L/min), while there was no change in the control group (p = 0.21). Therefore, anaerobic threshold in the supplement group increased by 16.7% over baseline at week one and 14.2% over baseline at week three, respectively. (Figure 1, 2 and Table 2). Figure 1 Anaerobic Threshold *p-value < 0.05 between supplementation and control group. Figure 2 Change in Anaerobic Threshold *p-value < 0.05 between supplementation and control group. Table 2 Anaerobic Threshold and VO2max   AT (L/min) VO2max (L/min)   Supplementation Placebo Supplementation Placebo PDGFR inhibitor Week 0 2.04 ± 0.28 1.88 ± 0.16 3.71 ± 0.34 3.22 ± 0.62 Week 2 2.38 ± 0.18* 1.84 ± 0.18 3.69 ± 0.23 3.26 ± 0.46 Week 3 2.33 ± 0.44* 1.83 ± 0.21 3.72 ± 0.27 3.39 ± 0.47 Mean ± SE, *p-value < 0.05 between baseline and week 1, baseline and week 3 We evaluated between group differences for anaerobic threshold values at each time point. At week 1 (p = 0.01) and week 3 (p = 0.02), significant between group differences were observed with supplementation means significantly higher than anaerobic threshold placebo means. We observed a significant interaction between group differences and change from baseline (p = 0.04).

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Mean TER values did not differ after 1-3 h of incubation (P > 0 0

Mean TER values did not differ after 1-3 h of incubation (P > 0.05), but significantly decreased after 24 h of incubation (Figure 3). In contrast, TER measured for pure cultures of S. Typhimurium N-15 in buffered DMEM showed a continuous and pronounced decrease in TER (Figure 3). Compared to initial model stabilization periods (Stab),

mean TER measured 1-3 h after incubation with effluents of all reactors from Salmonella infection periods (Sal) AUY-922 research buy were significantly lower (P < 0.0001, Table 1), with a mean decrease of 40 ± 4% (Figure 2D). This effect on cell integrity was confirmed by confocal microscopy analysis which demonstrated highly disrupted tight junctions after Salmonella infection for distal reactor (R3) effluents of F1 (Figure 4B) compared to initial

model stabilization periods (Figure 4A). E. coli L1000 stimulates Salmonella growth yet reduces invasion in the distal colon region E. coli L1000 established itself in the three-stage model at low levels with slightly but non-significantly higher numbers measured in R3 (4.9 ± 0.9 log10 MCN/ml) compared to R1 (4.5 ± 0.6 Midostaurin purchase log10 MCN/ml) and R2 (4.3 ± 0.6 log10 MCN/ml; Figure 2A). As shown previously [15], the addition of E. coli L1000 beads to the intestinal fermentation model enhanced Salmonella growth in all colon reactors compared to initial Salmonella infection periods (Sal; Figure 2A). However, significantly lower Salmonella invasion ratios were measured many with transverse and distal reactor effluents (Figure 2B) in comparison with initial Salmonella stabilization periods (Sal). Concomitantly, Salmonella adhesion ratios remained stable in R3 (Figure 2B), however the efficiency of cell-associated Salmonella to invade HT29-MTX

cells (Figure 2C) decreased significantly. The second addition of E. coli L1000 (Ecol II) had no further effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion ratios in R1 and R3. However, a significantly enhanced (P = 0.0004) Salmonella invasion ratio was measured with transverse reactor effluents (Figure 2B) compared to the first E. coli L1000 period (Ecol I), which was accompanied by a significant increase in invasion efficiency (Figure 2C). Similar mean TER values were measured with effluents from first E. coli L1000 (Ecol I) and Salmonella colonization (Sal) periods for all reactors (Table 1, Figure 2D), despite significantly higher Salmonella counts (P < 0.01) after the addition of E. coli L1000 (Figure 2A). TER significantly (P > 0.05) decreased by 19% and 26% with transverse and distal reactor effluents respectively (Figure 2D) after the second addition of E. coli L1000 (Ecol II) compared to the previous period (Ecol I) while Salmonella counts did not change for the two E. coli periods (Figure 2A). B. thermophilum RBL67 exerts a protective effect on epithelial integrity in highly infected environments B.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

In all groups, plasma PTH was relatively high This is a common f

In all groups, plasma PTH was relatively high. This is a common finding in this population and is likely to be due to their low calcium and high phytate intake [7, 17, 22]. In parallel to findings in Western women, NcAMP was relatively high for its

concurrent plasma PTH concentration in pregnant Gambian women, but both did respond significantly to an acute calcium load. This suggests that, as in Western women, the parathyroid gland in Gambian women adapted to a low calcium intake is responsive to change in plasma calcium, but that other regulatory factors such as PTHrP are involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism during pregnancy. There are several limitations of this study. Firstly, it included only ten women per group, and calcium-loading tests were performed on a cross-sectional basis. Smad inhibitor This will have limited the power of the statistical analyses and conclusions about changes that might be expected within individuals. In addition, during pregnancy,

expansion of the plasma volume may have confounded the observed response particularly of plasma calcium in this and previous studies. This may only partly be corrected for by the use of ptCaAlb. Comparability to the work by Gertner et al. [2] and Kent et al. [1] may be limited due to small differences between protocols. Gertner et al. [2] investigated women after 1 week on a standardized diet of 800 mg calcium per day. In addition, in the studies performed by Kent et al. [1] and Gertner et al. [2], no breakfast was reported as given during Roxadustat price the course of the calcium-tolerance test. The breakfast given in this study, although small and low in fat, protein, phytate, calcium and phosphorus content, may have influenced the post-loading response due to a delay in gastric

emptying. In conclusion, there were differences in pPTH, NcAMP and p1,25(OH)2D and bone markers between pregnant, lactating and NPNL Gambian women adapted to a low calcium intake similar to those described in Western women. There was no evidence of pregnancy-induced absorptive Sclareol hypercalciuria as observed in Western women with higher calcium intakes. The response to calcium loading indicates that there may be no differences in renal and intestinal calcium economy between pregnant, lactating and non-pregnant, non-lactating women, potentially due to a high degree of calcium conservation associated with low intakes. Larger studies designed to assess calcium economy in the intestine and kidney are required to confirm these findings. Acknowledgments This study was supported by the UK Medical Research Council under Programmes U105960371 and U123261351. Ms Tsoi was in receipt of a travel award from The Nestlé Foundation. We thank the staff of MRC Keneba, The Gambia for their help with this study.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

91 178 50 4   aProtein identifications were confirmed with a sign

91 178 50 4   aProtein identifications were confirmed with a significant MASCOT score of 71 for peptide mass fingerprint and ANOVA p ≤ 0.05, and a minimum of three matched peptides. bSignificant MS/MS score is > 54 for searches in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Spectra’s for single peptide identifications are supplied in Additional file 1. A general feature for all proteomes was that the proteins clustered in two regions on the gel, a region in the range of 36–42 kDa and one low molecular region from 8–20 kDa. Furthermore, a massively stained protein cluster at about pI 5.0-6.3 with a Mr of 37–42 kDa was identified in all gels. This protein cluster corresponded to the most abundant protein in beer – MLN8237 order protein Z (Figure 3, Table 2). During fermentation of both beers, wort protein changes occurred.

The protein spots identified as LTP1 (Figure 3; spot A22-A26, Table 2) on the wort 2-DE Adriamycin gel were more intense, than the corresponding spots on the 2-DE gel for the two beers. In the same pI range as LTP1 was detected, two lower molecular protein spots (Figure 3; spot A28, A29, Table 2) were detected in wort and identified as LTP2. These two LTP2 spots were undetectable in beer (Figure 3). Another feature that occurred during fermentation was that the serpin protein cluster of protein Z was shifted towards the acidic area, dividing the serpin protein cluster into two (Figure 3; B,C). This was not observed on the wort protein 2-DE gel (Figure 3; A). Three protein spots found exclusively in beer were identified to be cell wall associated yeast proteins, Uth1 – involved in cell wall biogenesis (Figure 3; spot B1, Table 2,

Additional file 1), Exg1 – an exo-β-1,3-glucanase, (Figure 3; spot B2, C2, Table 2) and Bgl2 – endo-β-1,3-glucanase (Figure 3; spot C5, Table 2, Additional file 1). In both beers, two higher molecular protein spots with a pI of 4.8 were observed oxyclozanide and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as Uth1 (55 kDa [Figure 3; spot B1, C1, Table 2]) and Exg1 (47 kDa [Figure 3; spot B2, C2, Table 2]). Although protein spots corresponding to Uth1 were observed in both beers, Uth1 was only identified in beer brewed with WLP001 (Figure 3; spot B1). In beer brewed with KVL011 a protein spot of 34 kDa (Figure 3; spot C5) was identified as Bgl2, which was not observed in the proteome of beer brewed with WLP001. However, Exg1 was identified in the beer brewed with both brewer’s yeast strains (Figure 3; spot B2, C2). Discussion Several proteome analyses of beer [4, 5, 8, 15, 17], malt [8, 14, 22, 23] and beer related processes [6, 16] have been made, but none seem to have considered the influence of fermentation and brewer’s yeast strains on the beer proteome. To investigate if proteome changes from wort to beer were yeast strain dependent, proteins from wort and beer brewed with two different ale brewer’s yeast strains were separated by 2-DE and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

Table 4 Sensitivities and specificities of multiplex real-time PC

Table 4 Sensitivities and specificities of multiplex real-time PCR for detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Species Reference test Detection

limit of the assay Cutoff 105 copies/mL     Sensitivity Specificity PPV a NPV b Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV S. pneumoniae BAL culture, blood culture and urinary antigen test 95% (20/21) 75% (101/135) 37% (20/54) 99% click here (101/102) 90% (19/21) 80% (108/135) 41% (19/46) 98% (108/110)   BAL culture, blood culture and urinary antigen tes + lytA PCR 91% (43/47) 89% (97/109) 78% (43/55) 96% (97/101) 79% (37/47) 95% (104/109) 88% (37/42) 91% (104/114) H. influenzae BAL culturec 90% (28/31) 65% (81/125) 39% (28/72) 96% (81/84) 81% (25/31) 85% (106/125) 57% (25/44) 95% (106/112)

  BAL culturec + fucK PCRd 93% (69/74) 96% (79/82) 96% (69/72) 94% (79/84) 63% (47/74) 100.0% (82/82) 100% (47/47) 75% (82/109) a Positive predictive value b Negative predictive value c Blood culture were Rucaparib also performed for H. influenzae but all were negative d fucK PCR was performed in the PCR positive and culture negative samples Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage from 156 adults with lower respiratory tract infection. Among 103 patients treated with antibiotic before sampling, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were identified by culture in 6% (6/103) and 20% (21/103) respectively, and by qmPCR in 36% (37/103) and 53% (55/103) respectively. Of 22 patients positive by Spn9802 PCR and lytA PCR alone 19 of them had antibiotics prior to sampling. Figure 2 shows the quantitative results of the qmPCR compared to semi-quantitative culture of BAL specimens for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. There was no correlation between the measured DNA copy number/mL and the bacterial growth. Figure 2 Quantitative results of the multiplex real-time PCR compared medroxyprogesterone to semi-quantitative culture of

BAL specimens. Table 5 shows results of tests for S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis in patients with meningitis. Of 87 CSF samples, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis were detected by culture in 5 (6%) and 2 (2%) samples, by 16 S rRNA PCR in 14 (16%) and 10 (11%) and by qmPCR and in 14 (16%) and 10 (11%) samples respectively. Altogether, culture, 16 S rRNA PCR and qmPCR were positive for S. pneumoniae in 14 cases, N. meningitidis in 10 cases, and H. influenzae in no case. If culture and the 16 S rRNA PCR in combination were used as reference standard for aetiology of meningitis, the sensitivities and specificities would be 100% and 100% for both S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Two samples positive by the ctrA PCR were positive in the unspecific 16 S rRNA PCR and sequence analysis of the PCR product determined them as Neisseria spp. They were considered as N. meningitidis in the specificity calculation.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

monocytogenes InlA over-expressing strain and ΔinlA strain were c

monocytogenes InlA over-expressing strain and ΔinlA strain were compared (Figure 2) and was also seen in experiments in the L. lactis background (Figure 3). These

results could be due to the high level of inlA expression from the Pnis and Phelp promoters, amplifying the differences in InlA on the surface of L. lactis and L. monocytogenes cells (Figure 2 and 3). We interpret these results as evidence of a specific interaction between InlA and a cell surface receptor on CT-26 cells which stimulates bacterial cell entry. To summarise, we have established a gentamicin protection assay, capable of discriminating InlA mediated invasion into selleck compound a murine cell line. Generation and screening of a random bank of InlA LRR mutants To generate diversity within the inlA gene we applied error prone PCR to the LRR region (between naturally occurring BglII/BstXI sites – Figure 1a). Four separate banks were created containing different levels of mutation frequency, each containing about 40,000 L. lactis clones. Initial assessment by DNA sequencing of ten clones from each

bank identified ICG-001 research buy mutations throughout the LRR region with the level of mutation correlating with the concentration of input template DNA for the error prone PCR (data not shown). To identify positive mutations, pools were invaded through CT-26 cells en masse as detailed in Figure 4. Sequential passages through CT-26 cells were required to remove the background functional InlA Fenbendazole from the pools (Figure 5). Of the four banks only the highest mutation frequency resulted in an initial recovery below that of wild type InlA, which suggested that a significant number of clones contained inactivating mutations. From passage two through six a significant enrichment in positive mutations was observed, with a leveling off at passage seven (Figure 5).

From passage six, eight clones from each bank were sequenced (Table 2) and assayed individually using both CT-26 and Caco-2 cells (Figure 6). All clones exhibited enhanced entry into CT-26 cells while no apparent differences for cell entry into Caco-2 cells were observed (compared to L. lactis InlAWT). However, no clones were identified which were capable of matching the level of L. lactis InlA m * mediated entry into the murine cells. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 of the 32 clones contained amino acid changes in residues involved in direct interaction with CDH1. Of the four banks, only the lowest mutation frequency contained multiple clones with the same mutation (Gln190Leu), with this single amino acid change also found in one clone from an additional bank (Table 2). Figure 4 Enrichment protocol for the selection of mutations in InlA conferring enhanced invasion of L. lactis into CT-26 cells. Cultures of L. lactis + pNZB containing (i) inlA WT (ii) inlA m * or (iii-vi) 4 banks of clones with different levels of mutation in the LRR of inlA WT were induced with nisin and assayed for invasion into CT-26 cells by gentamicin protection assay.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

The electric field effectively repels minority carrier from the i

The electric field effectively repels minority carrier from the interface, resulting in the increase of minority carrier lifetime in the SiNW arrays. However, if a SiNW has perfect cylindrical symmetry, and Al2O3 with negative fixed charge is deposited on the surface uniformly, the electric field in the SiNW will be cancelled due to the symmetry of the electric field. Since in this case the effect of field effect passivation cannot be obtained, the effective lifetime will not be improved by annealing. To confirm the hypothesis, we tried to anneal the SiNW arrays with Al2O3 at 400°C. As a result, our SiNW samples also

showed improvement Caspase pathway of effective minority carrier lifetime, as well as a flat c-Si substrate passivated by Al2O3 layers, after annealing at 400°C. The τ eff was found to be 27 μs. From this result, we conclude that since this website the prepared SiNWs

do not have a perfect cylindrical symmetry, the effect of field effect passivation can be successfully obtained. Since negative charge density in the Al2O3 was increased by annealing at 400°C, the effective lifetime was also improved. Although τ eff of the SiNW arrays on the Si wafers were successfully obtained, we cannot consider these lifetimes as the lifetime of the SiNW region (τ SiNW) due to the influence of the Si wafers. Therefore, we tried to extract τ SiNW from τ eff using PC1D simulation. PC1D simulations revealed that τ eff was significantly influenced by the Si wafers. The calculated τ whole which is equivalent to the measured τ eff is 20 times higher than τ

SiNW, as shown in Figure 7. These simulations clearly indicate that the measured τ eff is completely different from τ SiNW. Figure 7 The calculated carrier lifetime. GPX6 Carrier lifetime in only a SiNW as a function of the carrier lifetime in the whole region by calculation based on Equation 5 and PC1D. We proposed a simple equation to extract τ SiNW from τ eff without numerical simulations. In the simulations of PC1D, minority carrier continuity equations were used. In general, the terms of drift, diffusion, recombination, and photogeneration have to be considered in the continuity equations. However, the terms of electric field and photogeneration can be eliminated. In μ-PCD measurement, a decay of excess carrier density is measured after stopping a laser irradiation. Therefore, photogeneration can be neglected. Although negative charge in Al2O3 can form electric field on the surface of SiNWs, the influence of the electric charge on excess carriers is limited only on the surface. Therefore, in this calculation, electric field was neglected for simplification. It was assumed that carriers were generated uniformly in the whole region because the carrier density remained alternated by time variation from the resulting PC1D.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

J Appl Phys 2005,98(7):074904 CrossRef 25 Deal BE, Grove AS: Gen

J Appl Phys 2005,98(7):074904.CrossRef 25. Deal BE, Grove AS: General relationship for the thermal oxidation of silicon. J Appl Phys 1965,36(12):3770–3778.CrossRef HCS assay 26. Brunner K: Si/Ge

nanostructures. Rep Prog Phys 2002, 65:27–72.CrossRef 27. Medeiors-Ribeiro G, Williams RS: Thermodynamics of coherently-strained GexSi1-x nanocrystals on Si(001): alloy composition and island formation. Nano Lett 2007,7(2):223–235.CrossRef 28. Plummer JD, Deal MD, Griffin PB: Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 2000. 29. Enomoto T, Ando R, Morita H: Thermal oxidation rate of a Si 3 N 4 film and its masking effect against oxidation of silicon. Jpn J Appl Phys 1978, 17:1049–1058.CrossRef 30. Flint PS: The rates of oxidation of silicon. selleck products Los Angeles: Paper presented at the Spring Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Abstract No. 94; 1962. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions CW carried out the TEM experimentation and analysis. PL and MK carried out the Ge QD growth and kinetics analysis. TG conceived the mechanism of Ge QD explosion

and drafted the manuscript. PL conceived the study, supervised the work, contributed to data analysis and the manuscript preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background With the development of nanotechnology, complex micro/nanodevice assembly would gradually be a reality in the future. The various explorations in the aspects Palmatine of nanomaterial preparation and performance at present provide the base for nano-engineering, in which the controllable preparation and unique performance of nanomaterials have been the keys of exploration. With the aim of exploiting new coupling phenomena and potential applications, nanocomposites have attracted much attention over the past decade [1–5]. The typical preparation way is through an in situ fabrication; the different components are integrated together to form a nanocomposite at the same time. For example,

metallic nanocrystals could be incorporated into one-dimensional (1D) carbons to form a metal-carbon nanocomposite via an organometallic precursor-controlled thermolysis approach. Unprecedented physical and chemical properties become available due to the effects of spatial confinement and synergetic electronic interactions between metallic and carbonaceous components [6]. This type of nanocomposite has shown unique properties in some aspects including magnetic, catalytic, electronic, and thermoelectric properties [7–10]. Another preparation way is the surface recombination of several different individual nanomaterials using a physical or chemical method. Due to the complexity and importance of the nanomaterial surface property, this type of nanocomposite can more easily show the new phenomenon and unique performance.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

An increase in XylS amounts beyond the point at which this maximu

An increase in XylS amounts beyond the point at which this maximum concentration

is reached will lead to the formation of inactive aggregates. For very high cell-internal XylS amounts the concentration of dimers will thus be the same under induced and uninduced conditions. These findings enable expression of the transcription factor at a level for which the induction ratio at Pm is maximized, which is of high importance for recombinant gene expression. Methods Strains and growth conditions The main bacterial strain used as host in this study was Escherichia coli DH5α (Bethesda Research Laboratories), unless otherwise stated. The cells were cultivated at 37°C in Lysogeny Broth (LB) (10 g L-1 tryptone, 5 g L-1 yeast find more extract, see more and 5 g L-1 NaCl) or on Lysogeny Agar (LB broth with 20 g L-1 agar). Antibiotics concentrations used in this study were: kanamycin 50 μg mL-1, gentamicin

20 μg mL-1, and tetracycline 15 μg mL-1 (final concentration). For luciferase enzyme assay measurements 10 mL of LB were inoculated from an overnight culture and grown at 37°C to an OD600 of 0.1 and then induced with 1 mM m-toluate. After induction cells were further incubated at 30°C for 4 hours, before samples were collected. When the T7 promoter was used, Escherichia coli ER2566 (New England Biolabs) was used as a host. Growth conditions were similar to those of DH5α, enough but for induction IPTG was added to a

final concentration of 0.5 mM. For induction of the ChnR/Pb system, cyclohexanone was added at the concentrations indicated. Standard DNA manipulations All enzymes for DNA manipulations were purchased from New England Biolabs and applied as described by the manufacturers. Primers and oligonucleotides were purchased either from Eurofins MWG Operon or Sigma Genosys. Transformations in cloning experiments were performed with a modified RbCl protocol (Promega). For plasmid DNA purifications WizardPlus SV minipreps DNA purification kit (Promega) was used. PCR-reactions were performed either by the QuikChange site-specific mutagenesis kit from Stratagene, the Expand high fidelity PCR system kit from Roche or the Phusion® High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase kit from New England Biolabs, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Plasmid constructions and vector descriptions The plasmid pTA13 [10] was used for construction of pFS7. This plasmid harbours the Pm promoter with bla as reporter gene and the gene coding for xylS behind the natural Ps2 promoter in combination with a minimal RK2 replicon. A new NdeI-site was introduced downstream of xylS by site-specific mutagenesis. The luc-gene was amplified from pKT1 [29] with NdeI- and AgeI- flanking ends and inserted downstream of xylS. The NdeI-site was removed in a subsequent step by cloning of a PCR-amplified NcoI-xylS-BbsI-fragment from pTA13 into the new vector.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment

J Alloy Compd 2013, 553:343–349 CrossRef 12 Shi L, Hao Q, Yu CH,

J Alloy Compd 2013, 553:343–349.CrossRef 12. Shi L, Hao Q, Yu CH, Mingo N, Kong XY, Wang ZL: Thermal conductivities of individual tin dioxide nanobelts. Appl Phys Lett 2004, 84:2638–2640.CrossRef 13. Wang JA, Wang JS: Carbon nanotube thermal transport: ballistic to diffusive. Appl Phys Lett 2006, 88:111909.CrossRef 14. Wolf SA, Awschalom DD, Buhrman RA, Daughton JM, von Molnar S, Roukes ML, Chtchelkanova

AY, Treger DM: Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future. Science 2001, 294:1488–1495.CrossRef 15. Versluijs JJ, Bari MA, Coey JMD: Magnetoresistance of half-metallic oxide nanocontacts. Phys Rev Lett 2001, 87:026601.CrossRef 16. Zutic I, Fabian J, Das Sarma S: Spintronics: fundamentals and applications. Rev Mod Phys 2004, 76:323–410.CrossRef 17. Slack G: Thermal conductivity of MgO, Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 crystals from 3 to 300 K. find more Phys Rev 1962, 126:427–441.CrossRef 18. Callaway J: Model for lattice thermal CH5424802 conductivity at low temperatures. Phys Rev 1959, 113:1046–1051.CrossRef 19. Yun JG, Lee YM, Lee WJ, Kim CS, Yoon SG: Selective growth of pure magnetite thin films and/or nanowires grown in situ at a low temperature by pulsed laser deposition. J Mater

Chem C 2013, 1:1977–1982.CrossRef 20. Cahill DG: Thermal-conductivity measurement from 30-K to 750-K- the 3-omega method. Rev Sci Instrum 1990, 61:802–808.CrossRef 21. Lee SY, Kim GS, Lee MR, Lim H, Kim WD, Lee SK: Thermal conductivity measurements of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires by the four-point-probe 3-omega technique at low temperatures. Nanotechnology 2013, 24:185401.CrossRef 22. Lee KM, Choi TY, Lee SK, Poulikakos D: Focused ion beam-assisted manipulation of single and double beta-SiC nanowires and their thermal conductivity measurements by the four-point-probe 3-omega

method. Nanotechnology 2010, 21:125301.CrossRef 23. Choi TY, Poulikakos D, Tharian J, Sennhauser U: Measurement of the thermal conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes by the four-point three-omega method. Nano Lett 2006, 6:1589–1593.CrossRef 24. Choi TY, Poulikakos D, Tharian J, Sennhauser U: Measurement of thermal conductivity of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes by the 3-omega method. Appl Phys Lett 2005, 87:013108.CrossRef 25. Feser Evodiamine JP, Chan EM, Majumdar A, Segalman RA, Urban JJ: Ultralow thermal conductivity in polycrystalline CdSe thin films with controlled grain size. Nano Lett 2013, 13:2122–2127.CrossRef 26. Feser JP, Sadhu JS, Azeredo BP, Hsu KH, Ma J, Kim J, Seong M, Fang NX, Li XL, Ferreira PM, Sinha S, Cahill DG: Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire arrays with controlled roughness. J Appl Phys 2012, 112:114306.CrossRef 27. Wang ZJ, Alaniz JE, Jang WY, Garay JE, Dames C: Thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon: importance of grain size and frequency-dependent mean free paths.

Posted in Antibody | Leave a comment