Approximately half were intravesical and vesicoureteral reflux wa

Approximately half were intravesical and vesicoureteral reflux was the primary indication for surgery. In the excision group 82% of ureteroceles were previously punctured but only 50% were punctured in the marsupialization group (p = 0.09). Postoperatively the groups did not

differ Selleckchem AZD2014 significantly in terms of ongoing vesicoureteral reflux (13% and 14%), bladder diverticulum (3% and 9%), continence (100% and 95%), urinary tract infection (43% and 46%) or voiding dysfunction (24% and 25%, respectively). They varied significantly in terms of improved or stable hydronephrosis (70% vs 91%, p = 0.05).

Conclusions: When performing lower urinary tract reconstruction for ureterocele, this study demonstrates that the choice of complete excision vs marsupialization/partial excision does not appear to differentially affect clinical outcomes.”
“Purpose: Generally, it is recommended that all urachal remnants be excised to avoid recurrent disease and possible malignant transformation later in life. However, spontaneous resolution with no need for further intervention has been reported. We reviewed the experience with urachal remnants at a single institution and evaluated which patients could

be treated nonoperatively and which required surgical intervention.

Materials and Methods: We reviewed the medical records and radiographic studies of all patients with urachal remnants from January 1999 to January 2007. Patients were analyzed according to initial presentation, imaging

findings and treatment. Serial clinical examinations and radiographic imaging were used to follow patients.

Results: BI-D1870 research buy An external urachal sinus was found in 9 patients (39.1%) and I was surgically excised. Of the 12 urachal cysts (52.2%) 9 ultimately required surgical excision, of which 6 were infected initially. A patent urachus was found in 2 patients, which resolved during an observation selleck period. Radiographic imaging and/or physical examination diagnosed all remnants initially and confirmed complete resolution during followup. Eight of the 10 urachal remnants (80.0%) that resolved developed in patients younger than 6 months. Various accompanying urogenital anomalies were found in 8 patients (34.8%).

Conclusions: A small urachal remnant, especially at birth, may be viewed as physiological. Urachal remnants in patients younger than 6 months are likely to resolve with nonoperative management. However, if symptoms persist or the urachal remnant fails to resolve after 6 months of age, it should be excised to prevent recurrent infections.”
“Purpose: We determined whether implementation of a critical pathway and modification of the extravesical ureteral reimplantation surgical technique to repair unilateral and bilateral vesicoureteral reflux would consistently result in same day patient hospital discharge without increased morbidity.

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The transport parameters of the layers of the model were obtained

The transport parameters of the layers of the model were obtained from the hydrodynamic theory, the stochastic theory, and from the literature. The results showed that the increase in the thickness of the EGL could lead to a sharp drop in LDL accumulation in the intima. A partial damage to the EGL could compromise its barrier function, hence leading to enhanced infiltration/accumulation

of LDLs within the wall of the arterial model. Without the EGL, hypertension could lead to a significantly enhanced LDL transport into the wall of the model. However, the intact EGL could protect the arterial wall from hypertension so that the LDL concentration in the intima layer was almost the same as that under normal pressure conditions. The results see more also showed that LDL concentration within the arterial wall increased with Phi (the fraction of leaky junctions) on the intima layer. The increase in LDL concentration learn more with Phi was much more dramatic for the model without the EGL. For instance, without the EGL, a Phi of 0.0005 could

lead LDL concentration within the arterial wall to be even higher than that predicted for the EGL intact model with a Phi of 0.002. In conclusion, an intact EGL with a sufficient thickness may act as a barrier to LDL infiltration into the arterial wall and has the potential to suppress the hypertension-driven hike of LDL infiltration/accumulation in the arterial wall. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The G protein-coupled receptor 39-b (GPR39-1b) is a splice variant of which is expressed in the central nervous and gastrointestinal systems. Previously, GPR39-1b was proposed to be

the receptor for obestatin, but current evidence does not support this hypothesis. The purpose of the present work was to identify the role of GPR39-1b in anxiety and eating behaviors. Antisense oligonucleotides were infused at a constant rate into the cerebral lateral ventricles of rats and their effect on anxiety-like behavior and food intake was monitored. GPR39-1b antisense oligonucleotides produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated-plus maze test and in the black and white box test. Antisense oligonucleotides also decreased food intake. These results indicate that inhibition of GPR39-1b induces selleck compound a decrease in anxiety-related behaviors and disturbs appetite. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Endothelium-derived microparticles (EMPs) are small vesicles released from endothelial cells in response to cell injury, apoptosis, or activation. Elevated concentrations of EMPs have been associated with many inflammatory and vascular diseases. EMPs also mediate long range signaling and alter downstream cell function. Unfortunately, the molecular and cellular basis of microparticle production and downstream cell function is poorly understood.

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Upon TCR activation, there was recruitment of NF-kappa B to the p

Upon TCR activation, there was recruitment of NF-kappa B to the promoter and conversion of heterochromatin structures present on the latent provirus to active euchromatin structures containing

acetylated histones. Surprisingly, latently infected primary cells cannot be induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha because of a restriction in P-TEFb levels, which can be overcome by activation of the TCR. Thus, a combination of restrictive chromatin structures at the HIV long terminal repeat and limiting P-TEFb levels contribute to transcriptional silencing leading to latency in primary CD4(+) T cells.”
“The structural precursor polyprotein, Gag, encoded by all retroviruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Pexidartinib is necessary and sufficient for the assembly and release of particles that morphologically resemble immature virus LY2090314 particles. Previous studies have shown that the addition of Ca(2+) to cells expressing

Gag enhances virus particle production. However, no specific cellular factor has been implicated as mediator of Ca(2+) provision. The inositol (1,4,5)-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) gates intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Following activation by binding of its ligand, IP3, it releases Ca(2+) from the stores. We demonstrate here that IP3R function is required for efficient release of HIV-1 virus particles. Depletion of IP3R by small interfering RNA, sequestration of its activating ligand by expression of a mutated fragment of IP3R that binds IP3 with very high affinity, or blocking formation of the ligand by inhibiting phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of the precursor, Adenosine triphosphate phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate, inhibited Gag particle release. These disruptions, as well as interference

with ligand-receptor interaction using antibody targeted to the ligand-binding site on IP3R, blocked plasma membrane accumulation of Gag. These findings identify IP3R as a new determinant in HIV-1 trafficking during Gag assembly and introduce IP3R-regulated Ca(2+) signaling as a potential novel cofactor in viral particle release.”
“Complement, part of the innate immune system, acts to remove pathogens and unwanted host material. Complement is known to function in all tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we demonstrated the importance of the complement system within the CNS in the development of behavioral seizures following Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection. C57BL/6 mice, deficient in complement component C3, developed significantly fewer behavioral seizures following TMEV infection, whereas mice depleted of complement component C3 in the periphery through treatment with cobra venom factor had a seizure rate comparable to that of control mice. These studies indicate that C3 participates in the induction of acute seizures during viral encephalitis.

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This ‘photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency’ sets an

This ‘photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency’ sets an upper limit on the potential of algal-derived biofuels. In this review, we outline photosynthetic molecular targets that could be manipulated to increase the efficiency and yield of algal biofuel production. We also highlight Foretinib modern ‘omic’ and high-throughput technologies that might enable identification, selection and improvement of algal cell lines on timescales relevant for achieving significant contributions to future energy solutions.”
“Immune evasion is a defining feature of the virus-host relationship.

During infection, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) utilizes multiple proteins to manipulate the host immune response. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein blocks the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). Previously, we found that coinfection of wild-type HSV-1 with a panel of RNA Ulixertinib viruses resulted in a block to DC activation that was attributable to vhs. These observations led us to hypothesize that the vhs-mediated inhibition was dependent on signaling through the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway. By examining DCs generated from MAVS (IPS-1) knockout (KO) mice, we determined that RLR/MAVS signaling is not essential

for the DC response to HSV-1. We also evaluated the requirement for the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway in DC activation following infection with HSV-1 and found

that stimulation of DCs with wild-type HSV-1 required intact type I IFN signaling for the production of cytokines, whereas the vhs deletion (vhs(-)) mutant virus activated DCs without the need for exogenous IFN signaling. Comparisons of transcription selleck products factor activation in DCs infected with wild-type HSV and the vhs(-) mutant virus revealed that NF-kappa B activation was inhibited by vhs in the early phase of the infection. In contrast, IRF3 activation was not influenced by vhs. In these studies, measurement of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFN release from the infected DCs reflected the activation status of these transcription factors. Taken together, the work presented here (i) describes a novel role for the vhs protein as an inhibitor of the early activation of NF-kappa B during HSV-1 infection of DCs and (ii) offers a mechanistic explanation of how this protein interferes with DC activation.”
“An individual’s behavior is generally based on genetic blueprint and previous experiences. A coping strategy, affected by personal interpretation of past events, can be determined by behavioral controllability of stress. In this study, we examined the relationship between the hippocampal mGluR5 expression and coping strategies to stress. Rats were exposed to stress via inescapable and unpredictable footshocks on PNDs 14 and 90. Coping strategies to stress were also measured.

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The), were followed during the pregnancy by duplex scanning at 3,

The), were followed during the pregnancy by duplex scanning at 3, 6, and 8 months, and then I month after delivery.

Results: Eight pregnancies occurred in 6 patients (mean age 26.5 years) who had a patent self-expanding stent (1 patient had 3 pregnancies). They had stenting for May-Thurner disease ill 3 patients, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Everolimus(RAD001).html for post-deep venous thrombosis (DVT) left common iliac vein occlusion in I patient, and during venous thrombectomy in 2 patients. All stents were self-expanding metallic stents located oil the left common iliac vein. One patient had unrelated spontaneous abortion after 2 months of pregnancy. No

DVT or symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred during pregnancy, delivery, or during the postpartum period. Four patients needed cesarean delivery and none had hemorrhagic complications. None of the patients had adverse effects check details from the treatment. Duplex scan showed compression of the stent(s)

at 8 months in 4 patients with inflow obstruction in 3 patients. Postpartum duplex-scan showed no remaining stenosis in all patients. No stents had structural damage.

Conclusion: Ilio-caval stent compression call occur during pregnancy but does not lead to structural damage to the self-expanding stents. Despite this, no cases of DVT occurred with preventive LMWH treatment. (J Vase Surg 2009;50: 355-9.)”
“This article offers it unifying theoretical interpretation of known abnormalities in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in four psychological domains, namely emotion, memory, sensation-perception, and motor skills. It proposes that in all four domains three levels of click here processing can be identified: a basic level, an integrative level, and a “”logical”" or higher-order level. It also notes that in typically developing people, there is evidence that the integrative level is subserved by subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex. The major argument of

the article is to propose and argue that the integrative level in all four domains is responsible for common atypicalities in people with ASDs.”
“Background: Venovenous bypass has been the standard in relieving chronic total occlusions of iliac veins. The technical feasibility of percutaneous recanalization was previously reported. Routine applicability of this technique in a wide spectrum of lesions and patients, stent patency, and clinical outcome forms the basis of this presentation.

Methods: During a 9-year period, 167 limbs in 159 unselected patients in a consecutive series with post-thrombotic chronic total occlusions of the iliac and adjacent vein segments underwent percutaneous attempts at recanalization. Patients were not selected based on venographic appearance or extent of the lesion, or excluded because of a preemptive choice of open venovenous bypass surgery.

Results: Percutaneous recanalization was successful in 139 of 167 limbs (83%), including patients with bilateral occlusions and 14 patients with inferior vena cava filters incorporated in the treated occlusion.

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Here we provide evidence that the neutralizing antihexon monoclon

Here we provide evidence that the neutralizing antihexon monoclonal antibody 9C12 inhibits adenovirus infection by blocking microtubule-dependent translocation of the virus to the microtubule-organizing center following endosome penetration. These studies identify a previously undescribed mechanism by which neutralizing antibodies block virus infection, a situation that may be relevant for other nonenveloped viruses that use microtubule-dependent transport during cell entry.”
“OBJECTIVE: The brain-derived Nutlin3 neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

Va166Met polymorphism has been shown to be related to variability in episodic memory. We studied whether the Met allele is associated with poor learning and memory in survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

METHODS: Ninety-six patients were examined with a neuropsychological test battery approximately I year after SAH. Their deoxyribonucleic acid samples were genotyped for the BDNF Va166Met polymorphism. The Met carriers were compared to the Val/Val homozygous patients on the test performances.

RESULTS: In the total sample, there was no GDC-0973 solubility dmso difference between the genotype groups. However, among the patients with no cerebral infarction, the Met carriers had inferior

learning and memory performance than the Val/Val homozygotes, but the groups did not differ on the nonmemory test performances. The patients with left and bilateral infarctions had deficits in verbal memory, which may have concealed the effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on memory in the total sample.

CONCLUSION: As a whole, the BDNF Va166Met polymorphism was not associated with learning and memory performance in patients recovering from SAH. However, the Met allele might predict poor memory function among patients with SAH not complicated by a cerebral infarction. These findings support earlier reports of an association between the Met allele and low memory performance. Longitudinal studies comparing

functional recovery from SAH between Met and Val/Val patients without cerebral infarctions are warranted.”
“Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), which is associated with the endothelial tumor Kaposi’s sarcoma, encodes three CC/beta-chemokines. These are expressed early during productive CRT0066101 (lytic) infection and are believed to be involved in immune evasion, in addition to viral pathogenesis via induction of angiogenic cytokines. Here we report that two of the HHV-8 chemokines, CCR8 agonists vCCL-1 and vCCL-2, have direct effects on endothelial survival and virus replication. The v-chemokines stimulated virus replication when added to infected cultures exogenously, and CCR8 knockdown absent v-chemokine supplementation inhibited virus production, indicative of autocrine effects of endogenously produced vCCLs. This was verified and proreplication functions of each chemokine were demonstrated via shRNA-mediated vCCL depletion.

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(c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“Real-t

(c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Real-time RT-PCR and

Northern blot are employed for the measurement of HCV RNA but suffer from multiple purification steps, high cost, and relatively large variability. In this study, a hybridization method for HCV RNA detection is described. This method does not need RNA purification, and is sensitive enough to detect HCV RNA present in replicon cellular lysates harvested from a single well of a 96-well plate. Fixation of RNA by UV cross-linking is crucial for this sensitivity. A linear relationship exists between hybridization signal and cell density ranging from 10(5) to as few as 300 cells per well. The signal-to-background

ratio is greater than 40 and the Z factor is above 0.7. Using several known anti-HCV agents, dose-response curves and EC50 values generated find more from hybridization were similar to those obtained from a luciferase assay. This method has been successfully applied to replicons of different HCV subtypes and hepatitis B virus in our laboratory. In summary, this hybridization assay is sensitive, highly reproducible, easy to handle, and a valuable tool for antiviral drug discovery. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus with significant potential as a viral vector D-malate dehydrogenase for central nervous system (CNS) PSI-7977 molecular weight gene therapy. This study provides visual evidence that recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HSV-1 travel down dendrites in differentiated P19 neuronal-like cells to efficiently reach the soma. The virus also promotes cytoskeletal rearrangements which facilitate viral spread in vitro, including often dramatic increases in dendritic filopodia. Viral movements, cell infection and filopodia induction were each reduced with the actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D, suggesting the involvement of the actin cortex in these processes. The observation of neural cytoskeletal

reorganization in response to HSV-I may shed light on the mechanisms by which acute viral infection associated with herpes encephalitis produces cognitive deficits in patients. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Prior to PCR amplification, uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) can be incorporated to prevent amplicon contamination. Melting temperature (T) analysis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) hybridization probes was used to demonstrate a concentration-dependent decrease in T-m values when heat stabile or heat labile UNG was added. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Patients with schizophrenia have impairment in cognitive-emotional interaction that is reflected in delusion formation and poor social functioning.

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We characterized these varicosities by exploring the occurrence o

We characterized these varicosities by exploring the occurrence of synaptophysin-like immunoreactivity (Syn), a marker of small clear vesicles, and synaptotagmin-like immunoreactivity (Syt), a preferential marker of large dense core vesicles. We found that (i) VAChT and mENK, like ChAT-mENK, were coexpressed in only 59% of the mENK-containing varicosities, although they colocalized in the SPN cell bodies; and (ii) almost 60% of the population of mENK-containing varicosities did not express Syn or Syt, and over

80% of the mENK-containing varicosities Mocetinostat in vivo negative for VAChT also lacked Syn. These data prove that SPIN! segregate mENK from VAChT and ChAT, and show that most of the subset of mENKergic varicosities negative for VAChT also does not express Syn, suggesting the presence of a different vesicular pattern in these sympathetic preganglionic varicosities. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Constrictive Nepicastat nmr external Nitinol meshes have been shown to suppress neointimal tissue formation and preserve endothelial integrity in vein grafts. As this mitigating effect increased with the degree of constriction,

we investigated whether extreme constriction was possible without leading to detrimental luminal encroachment.

Methods: A senescent non-human primate model (Chacma baboons/bilateral femoral interposition grafts) mimicking the clinical size-mismatch between vein grafts and run-off arteries was used. Control grafts were either untreated (group 1) or spray-coated with fibrin glue (group 2). Nitinol meshes constricting the lumen by <= 80% (group 3) were compared with longitudinally pleated meshes of identical circumference that constricted the lumen by >90% (group 4). Anastomotic size mismatch at implantation

was PFKL expressed as quotient of cross-sectional area of run-off artery to vein graft (Q(C)).

Results: At 6 months, all vein grafts without mesh support showed thick eccentric layers of neointimal tissue (group 1: 348 +/- 130 mu m [Q(C) median at implant 0.19]; group 2: 318 +/- 142 mu m [Q(C) median at implant 0.17]). Fibrin glue-spraying had no effect. In contrast, neointimal tissue was absent in all mesh-supported grafts (P < .007 in all cases) both at 6 weeks/6 months (group 3: 7.5 +/- 8.8 mu m and 2.5 +/- 4.4 mu m [Q(C) median at implant 1.47]; group 4: 1.3 +/- 0.6 mu m and 3.8 mu 5.6 mu m [Q(C) median at implant 3.09]). Except for mild tissue buckling (fold height <356 mu m) in one group 3 graft, none of the mesh-constricted grafts showed wall folds.

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The impact of positive surgical margins was dependent on risk gro

The impact of positive surgical margins was dependent on risk group. Biochemical progression-free survival was 99.6% for the negative surgical margin group vs 94.9% for the positive surgical margin group in low risk disease (log rank p = 0.53),

93.5% for the negative surgical margin group vs 83% for the positive surgical margin group in intermediate risk disease (log-rank p < 0.001) and 78.5% for the negative surgical margin group vs 57.1% for the positive surgical margin group in high risk disease (log rank p = 0.003). These differences remained significant in a multivariate Cox regression model adjusting for other clinicopathological features.

Conclusions: Positive surgical margins are an independent predictor of biochemical progression in patients with intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Patients with low risk disease have a favorable long-term outcome regardless of margin status and may be candidates for Citarinostat concentration expectant management even with positive surgical margins, sparing them the side effects and costs of treatment.”
“p300/CREB binding protein-associated factor (PCAF) regulates gene expression by acting through histone acetylation and as a transcription

coactivator. Although histone acetyltransferases were involved in the toxicity induced by amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides, nothing is known about PCAF. We here analyzed the sensitivity of PCAF knockout (KO) mice to the toxic effects induced by i.c.v. injection of A beta(25-35) peptide, a nontransgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease. PCAF wildtype (WT) and KO mice received A beta(25-35) (1, 3 or 9 nmol) or scrambled A beta(25-35) (9 nmol) as control. After 7 days, A beta(25-35) toxicity Etomoxir was measured in the hippocampus of WT mice by a decrease in CA1 pyramidal cells and increases in oxidative stress, endoplasmic

reticulum stress and induction of apoptosis. Memory deficits were observed using spontaneous alternation, water-maze learning GABA Receptor and passive avoidance. Non-treated PCAF KO mice showed a decrease in CA1 cells and learning alterations. However, A beta(25-35) injection failed to induce toxicity or worsen the deficits. This resistance to A beta(25-35) toxicity did not involve changes in glutamate or acetylcholine systems. Examination of enzymes involved in A beta generation or degradation revealed changes in transcription of presenilins, activity of neprilysin (NEP) and an absence of A beta(25-35)-induced regulation of NEP activity in PCAF KO mice, partly due to an altered expression of somatostatin (SRIH). We conclude that PCAF regulates the expression of proteins involved in A beta generation and degradation, thus rendering PCAF KO insensitive to amyloid toxicity. Modulating acetyltransferase activity may offer a new way to develop anti-amyloid therapies. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: The American Joint Committee on Cancer currently designates invasion of the bladder neck as a pT4 lesion.

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Initial bladder capacity predicts the resolution of reflux “

Initial bladder capacity predicts the resolution of reflux.”
“Purpose: Results from our previous study demonstrated a high predictive value using ultrasound bladder measurements to identify abnormal bladder function in children

with enuresis or urinary tract infection. We prospectively evaluated the role of ultrasound measured bladder parameters for the assessment of bladder dysfunction and posttreatment bladder functional changes (if any), and their correlation Selleck MX69 with treatment outcome in children with primary nocturnal enuresis.

Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with severe primary nocturnal enuresis (more than 3 wet nights weekly) were prospectively recruited. At study entry each patient underwent ultrasound, and natural and conventional filling cystometric studies. Bladder volume and wall thickness index was calculated based on ultrasound studies and classified as thick (less than

70), normal (70 to 130) or thin (more than 130). The criteria for diagnosing urodynamic patterns included normal, overactive and underactive detrusor activity. Correlation between the ultrasound measured parameters and urodynamic findings was then evaluated. Patients were treated based on our standardized Bromosporine manufacturer treatment protocol. Bladder measurements were repeated in those children who had completed treatment. The McNemar test was used for comparing posttreatment changes in bladder measurements corresponding to treatment outcome in different groups, and p values less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.

Results: A total of 35 children (23 DOK2 males, 12 females; mean

age 9.03 years) were prospectively recruited. At study entry bladder volume and wall thickness index was normal in 8 patients, less than 70 in 24 and more than 130 in 3. When bladder volume and wall thickness index was correlated with ultrasound 87.5% of the patients with a normal index exhibited a normal bladder pattern on imaging. In addition, 96% of the patients with an index of less than 70 exhibited bladder overactivity on ultrasound. All of the children with a normal index had either a complete or good response to treatment, whereas 62.5% of those with an index of less than 70 did not respond to treatment. On followup bladder dysfunction had resolved in 37.5% of the children with an initial index of less than 70, all of whom had a good response to the treatment. Bladder dysfunction persisted in 62.5% of the patients, all of whom had partial or no response to treatment (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Ultrasound measured bladder parameters correlated well with ultrasound findings, changes in bladder function and treatment outcome in children with primary nocturnal enuresis.

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