[38], and therefore would have a higher incidence of bacterial tr

[38], and therefore would have a higher incidence of bacterial transmission to their gut. However, in contrast to previous report which detected a higher abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in vaginally delivered infants [39], we detected a lower abundance of Lactobacilli-Enterococci group in our studied cohort. This discrepancy may be due to the specificities of different oligonucleotide primers/probes used to target the Lactobacillus-Enterococci group. Alternatively, the close adherence of Lactobacillus spp. to mucosal layers might hinder its transmission to the infants while the other vaginal microbiota gets transmitted to the infant

[40]. Future validations on a larger cohort of vaginally delivered infants residing in SG and IN will be needed to verify the associated low abundance of Lactobacillus. Our study also showed that vaginal delivered infants had a significantly higher number of terminal check details restriction fragments (T-RFs) this website and microbial richness at 12 months of age. Previous studies had reported that the diversity of stool microbiota increased over time [41]. We postulate that the higher abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium

associated with vaginal delivery may promote the diversity of overall gut microbiota as the infant ages. Our findings also suggest that antibiotics consumption and sibling number are potential factors that influence the bacterial composition of the human fecal microbiota. For example, the consumption of postnatal antibiotic exposure resulted in a higher relative abundance of members of the Clostridium leptum group at one year of age. Previous studies have also found that postnatal antibiotic intake were associated with decreased numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides [11, 42], further suggesting that antibiotics consumption can perturb the structure of the commensal microbiota. A higher abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed to be associated with the presence of older siblings [11]. Furthermore, we noted a corresponding decrease in the abundance of Thiazovivin price Enterobacteriaceae Reverse transcriptase with

the number of siblings. Interestingly, Lewis and colleagues have previously reported a decrease in the incidence of allergy with the number of siblings [34], while our past studies have found higher abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. and decreased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in healthy infants compared to infants with eczema [5, 6]. It remains to be further established if these multitude of factors: the sibship size and abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterobacteriaceae are intricately linked with the development of allergy and its related disorders. Besides demographic and lifestyle characteristics, the genetic make-up of the host has been proposed to be an important contributing factor in shaping the composition of the gut microbiota.

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