After centrifugation, the supernatants were incubated with antibo

After centrifugation, the supernatants were incubated with antibody overnight and then Protein A agarose for 2 hours at 4°C. Immunocomplexes were washed and analyzed via western blotting as described.17 Images were collected with a 63 × 1.4 NA objective using appropriate laser excitation on a confocal microscope. For quantification of fluorescence intensity, nonsaturated images were taken with a fully

open pinhole, whereas nonquantitative images were obtained with a pinhole diameter equivalent to 1-2.5 Airy units. Live-cell imaging and photobleaching were performed as described in the Supporting Materials and Methods. To investigate the anti-HBV function of MxA, we used HepG2.2.15 cells, an HBV-replicating cell line carrying HBV DNA and stably secreting surface antigen particles, nucleocapsids, and virions. The cells GDC-0199 order were transfected with either wild-type MxA or MxAK83A, a mutant that lacks GTP-binding ability but exhibits extrinsic GTP hydrolytic activity,18 or MxAL612K, a mutant in which the intrinsic or extrinsic GTP hydrolytic activity is abolished but RG7204 ic50 the GTP binding activity is retained.9 To elevate the transfection efficiency, we used suspended instead of dish-attached cells with double amounts of plasmid

and Lipofectamine according to an optimized protocol. By this method, ≈70%-80% of the total cells were confirmed to be transfected (Supporting Fig. 1). We first determined the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level in the extracellular culture medium 24 hours after transfection. Expression of MxA dramatically lowered the HBsAg level, by 90% of the control that was transfected with an empty pcDNA3.1-Flag learn more vector (Fig. 1A). Likewise, both of the GTPase-defective mutants demonstrated a comparable

inhibitory effect on HBsAg secretion (Fig. 1A). To determine that the reduction in HBsAg was associated with a change in HBV replication, the encapsulated viral DNA in the culture medium was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In accord with the reduction in HBsAg, expression of wild-type MxA or each of the two mutants significantly decreased extracellular HBV DNA by equivalent levels (Fig. 1B). To further analyze the effect of MxA on HBV replication, we measured HBV relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) in the cytoplasm via Southern blot analysis. We found that expression of MxA or each of the mutants significantly lowered the cytoplasmic RC-DNA together with the double-stranded DNA (Fig. 1C), indicating an inhibition of the replication intermediates by the proteins. Because the HBV DNA replication intermediates originate from reverse transcription of HBV pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), we then examined the HBV pgRNA in the nucleocapsids. In HepG2.2.15 cells 24 hours after transfection, the cytoplasmic capsids were precipitated and the encapsidated pgRNA was extracted and determined via real-time PCR.

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