J Bone Miner Res 25:1886–1894PubMedCrossRef

21 Ominsky M

J Bone Miner Res 25:1886–1894PubMedCrossRef

21. Ominsky MS, Jolette J, Smith SY, Vlasseros F, Samadfam R, Kostenuik PJ (2008) Transition from alendronate to denosumab resulted in further reductions in local and systemic bone turnover parameters and reduced cortical porosity in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys [abstract 1216]. J Bone Miner Res 23(suppl S1):S61 22. Macdonald HM, Nishiyama KK, Hanley DA, Boyd SK (2011) Changes in trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture at peripheral sites associated with 18 months of teriparatide therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 22:357–362PubMedCrossRef 23. Sato M, Westmore M, Ma YL, Schmidt A, Zeng QQ, Glass EV, Vahle J, Brommage R, Jerome CP, Turner CH (2004) Teriparatide [PTH(1-34)] strengthens the proximal femur of ovariectomized nonhuman see more primates despite increasing porosity. J Bone Miner Res 19:623–629PubMedCrossRef”
“Introduction In 1997, the European Foundation for Osteoporosis AMN-107 molecular weight and Bone Disease (subsequently the International Osteoporosis Foundation, IOF) published guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis [1], subsequently updated in 2008 by the IOF and European Society for Clinical and Economic Evaluation of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) [2]. Since then,

there have been significant advances in the field of osteoporosis. These Gemcitabine in vivo include the development of new techniques for measuring bone mineral, improved methods of assessing

fracture risk and new treatments that have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of fractures at vulnerable sites. Against this background, the Scientific Advisory Board of the ESCEO, in collaboration with the IOF, has recognised a need to update the guidance which is detailed below. The high societal and personal costs of osteoporosis pose challenges to public health and physicians, particularly since most patients with osteoporosis remain untreated. Indeed, less than 20 % of patients with a fragility fracture receive therapy to reduce BCKDHB future fracture within the year following fracture [3–5]. The aim of this guidance is to stimulate a cohesive approach to the management of osteoporosis in Europe. The term guidance rather than guidelines is used, to avoid any prescriptive connotations since country- or region-specific guidelines are now widely available in many European countries and continue to evolve. Rather, the guidance can inform the development of new guidelines or the revision of existing guidelines. Whilst focussed on a European perspective and on postmenopausal women, the principles may be of some assistance in other regions of the world and in men. Osteoporosis in Europe Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture [6].

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