Our findings are consistent with those of another study, in which

Our findings are consistent with those of another study, in which vomiting was the most frequent symptom followed by abdominal pain and cough.9 Another report also showed that abdominal pain and vomiting were the presenting symptoms of esophagitis in Iranian children.6 Symptoms of GERD are reported in 2-7% of children. The clinical feature can be limited to symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation, or can be complicated with erosive esophagitis, esophageal strictures, or Barrett esophagus.7

Symptoms of eosinophilic esophagitis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mimic GERD. This type of esophagitis is an allergic inflammatory reaction. To differentiate between GERD and esophagitis, histological confirmation is necessary.10 A new definition proposes that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease, which is diagnosed by both clinical and pathological features.11 Almost all the previous

reports show that reflux esophagitis is the most common type in pediatric patients ranging from 10.3%,2 to 56.8%.7 This is consistent with our findings, according to which reflux was responsible for 32.8% of cases. Be that as it may, we presume that the prevalence of reflux esophagitis is higher because our study included only those pediatric Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients who were resistant to medical treatment or had acute presentations such as upper GI bleeding, while many patients with reflux esophagitis are treated medically in an outpatient setting without undergoing endoscopy. In children, eosinophilic esophagitis is mostly a food-hypersensitivity disorder. Treatment with the standard food elimination diet, i.e. diet excluding Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cow’s milk protein, soy, wheat, egg, peanut, and seafood, is usually successful.12-14 Many food proteins can act as antigens in humans. Cow’s milk proteins are most frequently considered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as a cause of food intolerance during Rapamycin supplier infancy. It can be associated with GERD and esophagitis.15

The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis has been reported to range from 0.73/10,000,8 to 52/100,000,16 and the trend has been described to be increasing.17 Nonetheless, we had only one (0.8%) patient Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II with eosinophilic esophagitis, which is lower than that in the previous reports. Most of our patients, who were resistant to medical therapy, had received different forms of formula or dairy eliminated milk based on allergic or eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosis, while only 2 (1.6%) patients had lymphonodular hyperplasia and one (0.8%) eosinophilic esophagitis. Further studies are needed to investigate the prevalence of milk allergy in the Iranian population. A high proportion of our patients suffered from opportunistic infections, including candida, aspergillosis, cytomegalovirus, and herpes. This is consistent with the most common comorbidity in our study, which was liver transplantation.

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