Rhesus monkeys are refractory until the first menses, and squirre

Rhesus monkeys are refractory until the first menses, and squirrel monkeys were dependent on estrus. Naturally occurring trichomonads are a conflicting factor for the use of monkeys as a disease model or vaccination

model. However, the pigtailed macaque is still useful since it naturally hosts lactobacilli, selleck chemicals llc has a vaginal pH of 5.5–8.0, sustains infection up to 2 weeks, responds to metronidazole treatment, signs of pathogenesis have been documented (erythema), and has been used as a disease model for C. trachomatis [71]. Determining the appropriate components of a vaccine can be problematic. Whole cell Tv vaccines are an attractive option due to the cheap manufacturing costs associated with culturing Tv and formulating a vaccine. We recently used this approach following the previously established mouse model that used FCA/FIA immunization. However, we used a FDA approved adjuvant, Alhydrogel, formulated with live, whole cell Tv. Vaccination with either Freund’s or Alhydrogel was found to significantly reduce incidence of infections on day 7 post-infection (incidence) and significantly improved clearance by day 28 post-infection

(resolution) compared to unvaccinated controls [Smith and Garber, unpublished data]. The simplicity and cost effectiveness of a whole cell vaccine are the predominant only advantages. An intramuscular route of immunization is also relatively noninvasive and easy to administer. A single dose injection is preferred to overcome dropout rates in Selleck GDC-0199 vaccination schedules, but human testing would be required to determine the necessity of boosters. On the other hand, a subunit vaccine could be a more targeted approach and safer with regards

to possible autoimmunity that could result from multiple antigens evoking molecular mimicry in host defense [50]. Since the draft genome sequence of Tv by Carlton and colleagues, [72] genomic and proteomic studies have been able to contribute valuable information for identification of unique and hypothetical Tv proteins that with further study could be potential vaccine targets. Hirt [73] reviews genomic and proteomic approaches and their contribution to identification of Tv surface protein antigens that could be pivotal virulence factors. The identification of antigen targets that will be effective against multiple isolates will require study of genetic diversity of Tv isolates and additional genome sequences. Meade and Carlton [74] suggest a unified approach to use microsatellite genotyping and multilocus sequence typing of T. vaginalis. So far, the use of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) has been successful at identifying an association of Tv genotype and metronidazole Libraries resistance.

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