These combined approaches enabled the delineation of distinct fun

These combined approaches enabled the delineation of distinct functional T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Tr1, Th17 cells and a

highly polyfunctional IL-22-producing T-cell population. Cluster analysis highlighted that the IL-22-producing T-cell population should be considered independently from the Th17 and Th1 subsets, find more although it was more closely related to the former. In parallel, we observed extensive TCRαβ sharing across all five subsets defined. The strategy described here allows the objective definition of cellular subsets and an unbiased insight into their similarities. Together, our results underscore the ontogenic plasticity of CD4+ T-cell progenitors, which can adopt a differentiation profile irrespective of antigen specificity. Effector CD4+ T cells were originally subdivided into two T helper (Th) types, Th1 and Th2, characterized by their

stable production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-4/IL-5 respectively 1, 2. The Th1/Th2 paradigm has been enriched by the discovery of CD4+ Tregs, involved in the maintenance of self-tolerance and subdivided in turn into naturally occurring (nTregs) 3 and inducible (iTregs) Tregs 4. The former express the FoxP3 transcription factor and their fate is determined in the thymus, while inducible Tregs acquire their regulatory properties in the periphery. This rather heterogeneous population includes both FoxP3+ Tregs and NU7441 price IL-10-producing type 1 Tregs (Tr1) 5. More recently, a pro-inflammatory IL-17-producing (Th17) subset involved in anti-microbial

immunity and autoimmune inflammation L-gulonolactone oxidase 6, 7 has been described 8, characterized by the expression of IL-17A, CCR6 9, CD161 10 and the RORC transcription factor 9, 11. IL-22-secretion was initially described as a typical Th17 cell feature 12, although results from several studies have suggested that IL-22-secreting cells should be considered distinct from Th17 cells. Indeed, T cells with skin homing potential producing IL-22, but not IL-17, have been described in healthy subjects 13–15, as well as in patients with atopic dermatitis 16. Therefore, it is possible that IL-22 production could delineate a distinct subset and not merely a particular differentiation stage of Th17 cells. Nonetheless, the in vivo stability of CD4+ T-cell subsets is debated 17, and it remains unknown as yet whether protective or pro-inflammatory T cells originate from common or distinct precursors 18. IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, originally described as having pro-inflammatory activities in the liver, pancreas, intestine and skin 19. IL-22 is mainly expressed by activated T cells, mast cells and NK cells and acts through a heterodimeric receptor containing the IL-10R2 and IL-22R1 chains. In contrast to the IL-10R, the IL-22R is not expressed on hematopoietic cells.

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  3. 43 The question of whether or not Tregs are numerically deficient
  4. foetus are distinct species ( Felleisen, 1998 and Tachezy et al ,
  5. Total, the observed variations in HDAC expression propose the lik
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