These data suggest that, although degradation of PAIP2A by calpai

These data suggest that, although degradation of PAIP2A by calpains find more is important for long-lasting potentiation, cleavage of other calpain targets also contributes to this process. Taken together, our data show that calpain-mediated PAIP2A degradation following synaptic activation and contextual learning plays an important role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory formation. CaMKIIα is essential for synaptic plasticity and learning (Frankland et al., 2001; Giese et al., 1998; Mayford et al., 1996b; Miller et al., 2002; Silva et al., 1992a, 1992b). CaMKIIα mRNA is highly expressed in dendrites ( Burgin et al., 1990) and is translated locally upon stimulation

via 5′ and 3′-UTR mRNA-dependent mechanisms ( Aakalu et al., 2001; Banerjee et al., 2009; Gong et al., 2006; Huang et al., 2002; Mayford et al., 1996a; Ouyang et al., 1999). To investigate whether PAIP2A and PABP play a role in control of CaMKIIα mRNA translation, we examined basal and activity-dependent CaMKIIα expression in WT and Paip2a−/− mice. First, we examined protein levels of CaMKIIα and Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) in the hippocampus of WT and Paip2a−/− mice under basal conditions and found that they were not different Selleckchem GDC-0449 ( Figure 6A). Next, we assessed activity-induced

expression of CaMKIIα and Arc proteins in Paip2a−/− mice. To this end, we trained WT and Paip2a−/− mice in a contextual fear conditioning task and measured protein levels of CaMKIIα and Arc in the dorsal hippocampus after 90 min. Consistent with previous studies ( Lonergan et al., 2010), behavioral training upregulated Arc protein levels ( Figure 6C). However, the increase in Arc was similar in WT and Paip2a−/− mice. It is striking that, although CaMKIIα did not increase

significantly after training in WT mice, CaMKIIα protein levels were significantly higher in trained Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase Paip2a−/− as compared to untrained Paip2a−/− mice (increase of CaMKIIα in WT: 20.7% ± 10.6%, p > 0.05; increase in Paip2a−/−: 63.2% ± 12.8%, p < 0.05; Figures 6C and 6D). Thus, activity-induced CaMKIIα expression is markedly enhanced in the hippocampus of Paip2a−/− mice. To determine whether the increase in CaMKIIα was the result of increased translation, extracts from dorsal hippocampi of Paip2a−/− and WT mice were fractionated on sucrose density gradients ( Figure 6B), and the distribution of several mRNAs across these gradients was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. CaMKIIα mRNA shifted to the heavy polysome fractions after training in Paip2a−/− mice, indicative of enhanced translation ( Figures 6E). In WT mice, a small and statistically not significant shift was observed ( Figure 6E).

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