ZFF from Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora sojae, and Pythium

ZFF from Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora sojae, and Pythium aphanidermatum triggered luminescence of the Vibrio harve7yi AI-2 reporter, indicating the presence of AI-2 in zoospore extracellular products and the potential of cross-kingdom communication between

oomycetes and bacteria. The production of AI-2 by zoospores was confirmed by chemical assays. These results Torin 1 provide a new insight into the physiology and ecology of oomycetes. Phytophthora and Pythium in Oomycota of Stramenopila are phylogenetically related to marine algae, but resemble fungi morphologically. Many species in these two genera are destructive pathogens that attack a broad range of economically important agricultural and ornamental crops as well as forest tree species. They produce asexual sporangia that release flagellate zoospores as their primary dispersal and infection agents (Deacon & Donaldson, 1993; Judelson & Blanco, 2005). Zoospores secrete a host of molecules during the homing process; however, with the exception of Ca2+ and an adhesive protein involved in aggregation, germination, and plant attachment (Deacon & Donaldson, 1993; Reid et al., 1995; Robold & Hardham, 2005), little is known of the presence of other products and their relevance to zoospore communication. Volasertib molecular weight In

contrast, the identification of autoinducers or small hormone-like molecules has provided an unparalleled insight into cell-to-cell communication and its role in the physiology, ecology, evolution, and pathogenesis Sclareol of bacteria and a few fungal species (Winans & Bassler, 2008). The vast majority of molecules, such as acyl-homoserine lactones or oligopeptides from bacteria (Waters & Bassler, 2005), and small primary alcohols from fungi (Hogan, 2006), are species specific and used for intraspecific communication. One signal molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2) can be produced by half of the known bacterial population (Sun et al., 2004) and by some eukaryotic plants (Gao et al., 2003; Hauck et al., 2003), although its production has not been reported in Fungi

and Stramenopila. This molecule facilitates interspecific communication among bacteria (Xavier & Bassler, 2005). AI-2 is a collective term for a group of signal molecules derived from 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) and is used interchangeably with DPD because conversion of DPD to various forms of AI-2 is a spontaneous ring closure process (Miller et al., 2004). The well-known presence of bacteria in Phytophthora and Pythium cultures and stimulation of Phytophthora zoospore and oospore production by bacterial metabolites (Zentmyer, 1965; Malajczuk, 1983) led us to hypothesize that zoosporic pathogens may produce AI-2 to communicate with bacteria. To test this, we analyzed zoospore-free fluid (ZFF) from bacterium-free and nutrient-depleted zoospore suspensions for AI-2 activity using an AI-2 bacterial reporter strain (Bassler et al.

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