19 Nevertheless, there is still a real clinical need for fast-act

19 Nevertheless, there is still a real clinical need for fast-acting antidepressant effects to counteract the rapid breakthrough depression experienced by the patients: hence the interest in chronotherapeutics, which act without the delay inherent to traditional antidepressant treatments.3,20 Paralleling these clinical achievements in recent years, basic research in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical last decade has substantially improved knowledge about the biological mechanisms that control the molecular machinery of the master clock,21 and link it with the neurotransmitter systems that are involved in mood regulation and targeted by antidepressant drugs.22 Confirming the

classical belief that man and his environment are inseparable, it is now established that exposure to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical environmental

stimuli that act on the transcription of clock genes will lead to major changes in the same brain neurotransmitter function involved in psychiatric conditions,3 and that from a clinical point of view the choice will be restricted between the potentially detrimental random exposure to these stimuli, which could even precipitate bipolar illness episodes,23,24 and the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical direct control by the psychiatrist in order to achieve a therapeutic effect. The present review focuses on recent achievements in the chronotherapeutic treatment of bipolar depression and on the recently discovered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical molecular mechanisms that clearly link chronotherapeutics with the usual antidepressant drug treatments of this disorder. Techniques The first studies published in clinical samples used single chronotherapeutic techniques to treat depression, but the clinical need for rapid and sustained improvement of patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical prompted the combination of different techniques among themselves and with usual antidepressant

drug treatments. Sleep deprivation Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation were first reported in 1959 ,25 but the first experimental trials to test its clinical efficacy were performed in the 1970s.26,27 The amazingly rapid effects of the treatment, which is usually able to restore Fossariinae euthymia in the morning soon after a single night awake, are closely Selleckchem Verteporfin linked to the wake period and are usually rapidly lost after restoring an undisturbed night sleep.11 To achieve the best results the wake period includes the extension of daytime wakefulness into the night, and lasts about 36 hours until the evening of the day after (total sleep deprivation), but it can also be limited to the second half of the night and the following day, thus allowing sleep during the first half of the night,28 with little disadvantage29: in both cases, the mood amelioration is obtained during the prolonged wake, and in the presence of light.

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