A predominantly cytosolic distribution of HDAC8 was described for

A predominantly cytosolic distribution of HDAC8 was described for prostate cancer cells [32] and for differentiating smooth muscle cells [33]. In the Dorsomorphin molecular weight highly malignant childhood cancer neuroblastoma high HDAC8 expression significantly correlates with poor prognostic markers and poor overall and event-free survival. In cultured neuroblastoma cells knockdown and pharmacological

inhibition of HDAC8 resulted in inhibition of proliferation, reduced clonogenic growth, cell cycle arrest and differentiation [34]. Furthermore, HDAC8 specific inhibition selectively induces apoptosis in T-cell derived lymphoma and leukemic cells [35]. In hepatocellular carcinoma overexpression of HDAC8 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. HDAC8 knockdown inhibits proliferation and enhances apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via up-regulation of p53 [36]. 3-MA mouse In human breast cancer cell lines overexpression of HDAC1, HDAC6 or HDAC8 contributes to increased invasion and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression [37]. Furthermore, HDAC8 promotes lung, colon and cervical cancer cell

proliferation [31] and may regulate telomerase activity [38]. A recently published analysis of HDAC expression patterns in urothelial carcinoma cell lines and tissues showed a deregulation of several HDACs in urothelial cancer. These findings include up-regulation of HDAC2 and HDAC8 and down-regulation of HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC7 [39]. Given the promising results in neuroblastoma [35], we sought to this website determine whether the selective targeting of HDAC8 might serve as an appropriate therapy for urothelial carcinoma. Methods Cell culture and treatment The urothelial cancer cell lines (UCCs) VM-CUB1, RT-112, SW-1710, 639-V and UM-UC-3 were cultured in DMEM GlutaMAX-I (Gibco, Life Technologies, Darmstadt, Germany) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ) at 37°C and 5% CO2. Cell lines used were provided by Dr. M. A. Knowles (Leeds, UK), Dr. J. Fogh (New York, USA), Dr. Barton Grossmann (Houston, USA) and by the DSMZ (Braunschweig, Germany). Normal urothelial Ketotifen control

(NUC) cells were isolated from ureters after nephrectomy and were cultured in keratinocyte serum-free medium (Invitrogen, Life Technologies, Darmstadt, Germany) supplemented with 0.25 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 12.5 μg/ml bovine pituitary extract [40]. Experiments with inhibitors were performed 24 h after seeding of the cells with a single dose of the selective HDAC8-inhibitors compound 2 (c2; 1-napthohydroxamic acid, (abcr GmbH & Co, Karlsruhe, Germany), compound 5 (c5, δ-naphtyl-trans 2-butenoil hydroxamic acid) and compound 6 (c6, 4-naphtyl-benzoil hydroxamic acid) or the pan HDAC-inhibitor SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; #1009929, Cayman Chemicals, Ann Arbor, MI). C5 and c6 are investigational compounds (described in [41]) and are available on request. Inhibitors were dissolved in DMSO as a stock of 10 mM.

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