Among the transiently downregulated genes in cluster K were genes

Among the transiently downregulated genes in cluster K were genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, such as those coding for nitrite and nitrate reductases, nirD, nirB and narB, which play a role in the conversion of nitrate to ammonia. Unlike the wild type, the clustering of the rpoH1 mutant data yielded the observation of a large cluster of genes whose expression changed very little throughout the time-course. For

the genes in cluster Sepantronium research buy L, the M-values remained close to zero at all time points (Figure 5B). Genes in cluster L include those coding for heat shock proteins and proteases, as well as the elongation factor tufAB operon and the gene coding for the putative chemotaxis protein cheW3. The complete lists of genes obtained from the clustering of the rpoH1 mutant data can be seen in Additional file 6. Additionally, in order to confirm the microarray results, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses

of six VX-770 ic50 different genes were performed, for time points 10 and 60 minutes after pH shock (Additional file 7). The qRT-PCR results were very similar to those of the microarray expression data, for all genes analyzed, with the exception of the dctA gene, which presented a relatively higher expression value than that observed in the wild type microarrays at the 60-minute time point. Identification of S. meliloti genes that are regulated in an RpoH1-independent manner following an acidic pH shift Based on the cluster comparison between wild type and rpoH1 mutant, our results were most consistent with the dynamic distribution of genes in two different categories: genes whose selleck compound expression at low pH is independent of rpoH1 Protein kinase N1 expression and genes that display an expression dependent on rpoH1 after pH shift. RpoH1-independent genes were designated as those distributed into similar expression profiles in both wild type and

rpoH1 mutant clustering analyses, that is, genes that were similarly up- or downregulated in both mutant and wild type arrays. Most genes from wild type cluster A presented an RpoH1-independent expression, as they were also upregulated in the rpoH1 mutant arrays and grouped at cluster G in the rpoH1 mutant clustering analysis. The gene coding for the low pH induced protein LpiA also presented RpoH1-independent upregulation in the pH shift arrays, as did the exopolysaccharide I biosynthesis genes exoQ, exoW, exoV, exoH, exoK exoR, exoN, and exoY (Figure 6A). Similar expression profiles could also be observed for the genes coding for the carbonic anhydrase Cah and the cytochrome CycF protein. Almost all genes involved in motility and flagellar biosynthesis, like the flagellar genes flgB, fliE, flgG and flgL (Figure 6B), displayed similar expression profiles in both wild type and mutant arrays, characterizing therefore a likely RpoH1-independent downregulation of motility genes upon acid pH shift in S. meliloti.

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