Frequent early awakening was significantly associated with freque

Frequent early awakening was significantly associated with frequent use of all technology types. The greatest effect was observed in frequent television viewers (odds ratio [OR], DZNeP ic50 4.05 [95% confidence interval

CI, 2.06-7.98]). Difficulty falling asleep was significantly associated with frequent mobile telephone use, video gaming, and social networking, with music listeners demonstrating the greatest effect (OR, 2.85 [95% CI, 1.58-5.13]). Music listeners were at increased risk for frequent nightmares (OR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.22-3.45]). Frequent use of all technologies except for music and mobile telephones was significantly associated with greater cognitive difficulty in shutting off. Frequent television viewers were almost four times more likely to report higher sleepwalking frequency (OR, 3.70 [95% CI, 1.89-7.27]). Conclusions: Frequent weekday technology use at bedtime was associated with significant adverse effects on multiple sleep parameters.

If confirmed in other samples and longitudinally, improving sleep hygiene through better management of technology could enhance the health and well-being of adolescent populations. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Background There is evidence that advanced infectious chronic periodontal inflammatory disease may have an impact on general health including cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the ability GW786034 of Porphyromonas gingivalis to colonize heart valves and, subsequently, to assess whether there is an association between the presence of the DNA of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal pockets and in degenerated heart valves. Materials and Methods Thirty

patients were enrolled in the study and 31 valve specimens harvested during cardiac surgery operations were SNX-5422 examined. All patients underwent a periodontal examination. To evaluate the periodontal status of the patients the following clinical parameters were recorded: the pocket depth, bleeding on probing (BOP) and aproximal plaque index (API). The presence of P. gingivalis in heart valve specimens and samples from periodontal pockets was analyzed using a single-step PCR method. Results P. gingivalis DNA was detected in periodontal pockets of 15 patients (50%). However, the DNA of this periopathogen was found neither in the aortic nor in the mitral valve specimens. Conclusions This study suggests that P. gingivalis may not have an influence on the development of the degeneration of aortic and mitral valves.”
“P>Bacterial pathogens deliver multiple effector proteins into eukaryotic cells to subvert host cellular processes and an emerging theme is the cooperation between different effectors. Here, we reveal that a fine balance exists between effectors that are delivered by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) which, if perturbed can have marked consequences on the outcome of the infection.

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