TGF-beta 1 is secreted in a latent form, linked

TGF-beta 1 is secreted in a latent form, linked CT99021 concentration to Latency Associated Protein (LAP). Analysis of Latent TGF-beta 1 by TGF-ELISA requires dissociation of TGF-beta 1 from LAP, e.g. by acidification of

samples. The ELISA then measures total TGF-beta 1, equivalent to dissociated Latent TGF-beta 1 plus any free TGF-beta 1 present prior to acidification. Evolutionary conservation of TGF-beta 1 across mammals also renders TGF-beta 1 ELISAs reactive with TGF-beta 1 in bovine serum often used in human cell cultures. To enable a direct analysis of Latent TGF-beta 1, monoclonal antibodies were made against LAP from human latent TGF-beta 1 and used to develop a LAP ELISA detecting Latent TGF-beta 1. The ELISA did not react with LAP from human Latent TGF-beta 2 or 3, respectively, nor with Latent

TGF-beta in bovine serum. EDTA-containing plasma from healthy subjects (n = 20) was analyzed by conventional TGF-beta 1 ELISA and LAP ELISA. By TGF-beta 1 ELISA, total TGF-beta 1 were detected in all samples (median 133 pM, range 34-348 pM); low levels of free TGF-beta 1 found in 8/20 non-addified samples showed that >98.5% of the total TGF-beta 1 derived from Latent TGF-beta 1. Latent TGF-beta 1 found in non-acidified samples by LAP ELISA (median 154 pM, range 48-403 pM) was comparable in molar levels to, and correlated with, total TGF-beta 1 (r(s) Bindarit 0.96, p<0.0001). A similar agreement between the total TGF-beta 1 and the LAP ELISA was found with citrate- and heparin-containing plasma. The LAP ELISA find more facilitates analysis of Latent TGF-beta 1 without sample acidification and is not compromised by the presence of bovine serum in human cell supernatants. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Microspheres fabricated by biodegradable polymers with tunable surface properties show great potentials as microcarriers in in vitro cell cultivation

and tissue engineering. Herein we reported a new method to regulate the surface property and morphology of microspheres via the synthesis of biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers with adjustable compositions. The poly(E-caprolactone-b-ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers with functional amino end groups bonding to the PEO block (PCL-b-PEO-NH2) were synthesized by sequential ring-opening polymerization with potassium bis(trimethylsilyl) amide as initiator. The copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and H-1 NMR, and then used to fabricate microspheres by w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The surface properties of microspheres were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that both the fabrication conditions and copolymer composition have great influences on the surface morphology and property of microspheres. The reactive amino functional groups are dominantly located on the surface of microspheres.

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