VILIP-1 is strongly expressed in different populations of princip

VILIP-1 is strongly expressed in different populations of principal and non-principal neurons in the rat hippocampus. VILIP-1-containing interneurons are morphologically and neurochemically heterogeneous. On the basis of co-localizing markers, VILIP-1 is rarely present in perisomatic inhibitory parvalbumin containing cells. However, VILIP-1 is frequently expressed in mid-proximal

dendritic inhibitory cells characterized by calbindin immunoreactivity, and most strongly co-expressed in calretinin-positive Torin 1 chemical structure disinhibitory interneurons. Partial co-localization of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1 alpha with VILIP-1 was often found in interneurons located in the stratum oriens of the hippocampal CA1 region and in hilar interneurons. Partial co-localization of alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with VILIP-1 was seen in stratum oriens interneurons and particularly at the border of the hilus in the dentate gyrus, where VILIP-1 also strongly co-localized with calretinin. We

speculate that depending on the regulation of the expression of VILIP-1 in hippocampal pyramidal cells or defined types of interneurons, it may have different effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and network activity in health and disease. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Herpes and herpes-like virus infections have been reported in various marine mollusc species associated with high mortality rates. Following the characterisation and genome sequencing of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), specific diagnostic tools have find more been developed based on conventional PCR techniques or in situ hybridisation. We have now developed a real-time PCR assay for rapid, sensitive and quantitative detection of OsHV-1, and compared it with a conventional PCR technique described previously. The new assay utilised SYBRO Green chemistry with specific primers C-9/C-10 targeting the C region. The melt curve analysis of OsHV-1 DNA or DNA extracted from infected material showed only one

melting temperature peak (75.75 STK38 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The assay had a detection limit of 4 copies/mu L of viral genomic DNA and a dynamic range of 5 logs. Using infected oyster samples as template, the assay was about 100-fold more sensitive than single PCR method using C-2/C-6 primers. The assay was applied successfully for rapid diagnosis (100 min) and quantitation of OsHV-1 in different developmental stages of Crassostrea gigas. Although it already exists a competitive PCR method to quantify OsHV-1 DNA, quantitative data that will emerge in future using the new sensitive and reliable assay will illuminate aspects of pathogenesis, in particular the viral loads in asymptomatic oysters and the kinetics of infection in specific target tissues. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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