, 2005) It is not expected that supplemental seaweed rafts are s

, 2005). It is not expected that supplemental seaweed rafts are supplied from the west coast of Honshu Island. Along the south of Honshu where no Sargassum forests might be distributed, juveniles

of yellowtail can’t accompany seaweed rafts in 2100. Migration of yellowtail may be greatly impacted by the global warming. Kuwahara et al. (2006) examined geographical distribution of marine organisms when water temperature rises. They estimated changes of their geographical distributions in two cases adding 1.5 °C or 3 °C to the present surface water temperatures under the assumption that relative positions of isotherms of sea surface temperature does not change. Although this study is very important to estimate impacts of water temperature rises on marine organisms, surface water temperatures in 2050 and 2100 predicted by A2 models do not show parallel increase in water temperatures along the coast to that in 2000. It is better to use Belnacasan purchase predicted water temperatures based on some scenario to estimate the impacts of water temperature rise on geographical distributions of marine organisms. It is MAPK inhibitor clear to estimate impacts of water temperature rise on macroalgae fixing on the bottom because they cannot move to avoid the impacts. The seaweed beds

are very important primary producers and ecological engineers. The extinction of seaweed beds leads disappearance of fish, sea urchins, abalones and turban shells in the seaweed beds. Floating seaweeds derived from Sargassum forests also disappear when the extinction of Sargassum forests. The extinction of floating seaweeds influences Methane monooxygenase on spawning of flying fish, and transport of yellowtail, Japanese mackerel and Sebastes larvae. In the future, it is necessary to estimate impacts of water temperature rises on seaweed beds by using other storylines and also including other marine herbivorous or omnivorous organisms influencing on seaweeds. This study was supported by

Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), No. 16108002, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), No. 19405033 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), No. 22255010 from Japan Society for Promotion of Science. The first author thanks to Prof. M.J. Kishi of Hokkaido University for his encouragement to conduct this study and members of his laboratory, Behavior, Ecology and Observation Systems, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo for their help to conduct the research. “
“There has been increasing concern over the global loss of corals and seagrass and this has been particularly well documented for the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR) (De’ath et al., 2012 and Orth et al., 2006). Management of this vast resource requires balancing coastal pressures from port and urban development, the extensive agriculture industry in GBR catchments, and needs to consider potential impacts on water quality from these activities (Brodie et al., 2013).

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