4% (approximately 12 million) It should be noted, however, that

4% (approximately 12 million). It should be noted, however, that the increasing prevalence of the disease is found worldwide. There were 371 million diabetics worldwide in 2012. It is estimated that in 2030, approximately 552 million individuals will have diabetes. This is equivalent to one diabetic patient for every

ten adults; for that number to be reached, three new cases will be identified every 10 seconds.2 Although T1DM is less common than T2DM, it has been increasing every year, both in developed and in developing countries. The worldwide prevalence of T1DM is 0.1% to 0.3%, with 78,000 new cases every year, especially among young individuals (< 5 years).2 T2DM affects approximately 7% of the general population.2 EPZ5676 Diabetics are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, neuropathies, and nephropathies, with decreased quality of life and survival.3 Y-27632 solubility dmso According to the International Diabetes Federation, diabetes caused 4.8 million deaths in 2012.2 Due to the

magnitude of the disease and its impact on public health, identifying measures to prevent its occurrence is of great interest. It is believed that breast milk is able to have a positive impact on health by preventing the manifestation of diseases such as DM.4 In T1DM, the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells is genetically transmitted. However, it appears that not all individuals that have the gene develop the disease. This fact suggests the existence of environmental factors that can control its manifestation. It is believed that the early use of cow’s milk, a highly allergenic food,5 and the absence of breastfeeding are responsible for triggering the abovementioned Bortezomib autoimmune process.6 The destruction of β cells occurs on average for ten years, coinciding with the peak incidence of the disease, which

occurs between the ages of 10-14 years.7 The association between breastfeeding and T1DM has been demonstrated in a case-control study involving 1,390 preschoolers. That study demonstrated that receiving breast milk for five months or longer acted as a protective factor against diabetes (OR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.54-0.93).8 Thus, a considerable proportion of diabetes risk was explained by modifiable exposure, and is potentially preventable. The protective effect of human milk has been linked to its anti-infective properties and because its use prevents early exposure to other infectious agents present in other types of milk.9, 10 and 11 However, some researchers have contested this association.12 and 13 Individuals that were breastfed have lower rates of obesity and T2DM than those fed infant formula.14 and 15 The investigated benefits were proportional to the duration of breastfeeding.16 and 17 Such effects have been attributed to appetite regulation and reduced weight gain in breastfed children and/or effects of nutrients or bioactive constituents present in human milk.

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